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■ k 

How TO Write Letters: 








Letters, Notes, and Cards. 


J. Willis Westlake, A. M., 








Westoott a Thohbor, 
Btereotyj)en and Electrotypers^ Philada. 

Sherman k Co, 
Fiinlart, PliOada, 


"VT'EARLY all the writing of most persons is in the fonn 
-L 1 of letters ; and yet in many of our schools this kind 
of composition is almost entirely neglected. This neglect is 
probably due in some measure to the fact that heretofore 
there has been no complete and systematic treatise on the 
subject of letter- writing. When it is considered, that in 
the art of correspondence there is much that is conventional, 
requiring a knowledge of social customs, which, if not early 
taught, is obtained only after many years of observation and 
experience ; and that the possession or want of this know • 
ledge does much to determine a person's standing in cultured 
society, — the value of this art, and of a thorough text-book 
by which it may be taught, will be duly appreciated. For 
many years the author, in common with many other teachers, 
has felt the need of such a work, in the instruction of his 
own classes, and it is to this want that the present treatise 
owes its origin. 

In plan the work is broad and comprehensive, embracing 
as it does the whole field of letters — their classification, struc- 
ture, rhetoric, and literature — as well as the forms and uses 
of the various kinds of notes and cards. It is designed, both 
in matter and in method, to meet the wants, not only c^l 


schools of various grades, but also of private learners and 
of society at large. 

Most of the materials employed have been- gathered from 
original sources, and now appear in print for the first time. 
This is especially true of the articles on Notes and Cards, 
Titles, and Forms of Address and Salutation. No pains have 
been spared to ascertain the best present usage in regard 
to all the subjects presented. Concerning official and pro- 
fessional titles and forms, information has been sought and 
obtained from various Heads of Departments of our National 
and State Governments, from military and naval officers, from 
the leading colleges, and from other high sources ; and on 
social matters the author has been kindly favored with the 
advice and suggestions of many ladies and gentlemen in the 
principal cities, who, if he were permitted to name them, 
would at once be recognized as persons of the highest culture 
and refinement. To these, and to all others who harve in 
any way afibrded him assistance and encouragement in his 
labors, he proffers his grateful acknowledgments. His special 
thanks are due, and are hereby cordially tendered, to Mr. 
William S. Schofield of Philadelphia, whose tireless zeal, 
sound judgment, and excellent taste, constantly and variously 
exercised in the interest of the work, have added greatly to 
its value and completeness. 

And now, with many hopes and a few fears, the author 
submits his little book to the great tribunal of public opin- 
ion, adding only the assurance that, whatever may be ita 
merits or its faults, it is the result of an earnest desire to 
promote the literary and social culture of our schools and 

MiLLEESViLLE, Pa., February 2, 1876. 



[a general index mat be found on page 263.] 

PART I.— Letters, Notes, and Cabds. 

DIVISION I.— Lettees 11 

Chapter I. — Classification 12 

Chapter II. — Structure 15 

Section I. Materials 15 

Section 11. The Heading 19 

Section III. The Introduction 25 

Section IV. The Body 39 

Section V. The Conclusion 44 

Section VI. Folding 54 

Section VII. The Superscription 57 

Section VIII. The Stamp 65 

Supplement. — Type- Writer Correspondence 66 

Chapter III. — The Rhetoric of Letters 70 

Section I. General Principles 70 

Section II. Special Applications 91 

Sub-Sec. I. Style and Specimens of Social Letters,.. 91 

Sub-Sec. II. Style and Specimens of Business Lettev «. 108 

Chapter IV. — The Literature op Letters 121 

Section 1. Bird's- Eye View 121 

Section II. Gleanings 127 

DIVISION II.— Notes and Cards 135 

Chapter I. — Notes 135 

Introduction 135 

Notes of Ceremony and Compliment 138 

Invitations 1^% 


Acceptances and Regrets 152 

Miscellaneous Notes 155 

Chapter II. — Cards 161 

Introdnction 161 

Ceremonial Cards 162 

Visiting Cards 164 

Professional and Official Cards 168 

Business Cards 168 

PART II.— Okthography and Punctuation. 

DIVISION I.— Orthography.. ; 171 

Rules for Forming Derivatives 171 

Special Rules 174 

Rules for Capitals 175 

DIVISION II.— Punctuation 177 

Introduction 177 

Rules and Exercises 180 

The Period 180 

The Interrogation 181 

The Exclamation 182 

Quotation Marks 183 

The Colon 185 

The Semicolon 188 

The Comma 190 

The Dash 198 

The Curves 200 

The Brackets 202 

PART III.— Miscellaneous. 

DIVISION I.— Appellative Titles 207 

Use and Abuse of Titles. 207 

Classified List op Titles 216 

DIVISION II.— Forms of Address and Salutation 223 

American 223 

English 238 

DIVISION III. — Classified List of Abbreviations 242 

DIVISION IV.— Foreign Words and Phrases 249 

DIVISION v.— Postal Information 253 

DIVISION VL— Business Forms 259 





1 1. Business. 
I. Importance. < 2. Social. 

(^ 3. Intellectual. 
II. Plan of tpe Wokk. , 

Importance* — As letter-writing is the most generally prac- 
ticed, 80 also it is the most important, practically considered, 
of all kinds of composition. This will more fully appear from 
the following considerations : — 

1. Letter-writing is indispensable in business. All persons 
have husiness of some kind to transact, and much of it must 
he done by means of letters. To be able to write a good 
letter is greatly to a person's advantage in any occupation. 
Many good situations are obtained by teachers, clerks, and 
others, on account of this ability ; and quite as many are lost 
for the want of it. 

2. It is a social obligation. We are naturally social beings ; 
and pleasure, interest, and duty equally demand that our 
friendships and other social ties should be maintained and 
strengthened. In inany cases this can be done only by means 
of letters. No one would willingly lose out of his life the joy 
01 receiv ng letters froin absent friends, nor withhold from 
others the same exquisite pleasure. 



It may be stated, also, that a person's social, intellectual, 
and moral culture are indicated in his letters, as plainly as in 
his manners, dress, and conversation ; and it is as great a viola- 
tion of propriety to send an awkward, careless, badly written 
letter, as it is to appear in a company of refined people, with 
swaggering gait, soiled linen, and unkempt hair. 

3. It gives intellectual culture. Letter-writing is one of the 
most practical and interesting exercises in English compo- 
sition — one that is suitable for persons of all grades, from the 
child just learning to write, to the man of highest attainments. 
It affords exercise in penmanship, spelling, grammar, diction, 
invention — in short, in all the elements of composition, and 
gives ease, grace, and vivacity of style. Many who have 
become distinguished in other kinds of writing, have acquired 
much of their power and fluency of expression by their prac- 
tice of writing letters. Of these Robert Burns is a notable 
exa^iple. In fact the letters of distinguished men and women 
form a distiiict and important department of literature ; and 
some who are recognized as standard authors would long ago 
have been fbrgotten but for their admirable correspondence. 
Of the latter it is sufficient to mention Madame de S^vign6, 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, and Horace Walpole. 

Fldli 0^ the Work. — For convenience, this treatise is divided 
into thWe p'Atts : — 

Part I. Lettees, Notes, and Cabds. 

Part II. Orthography and Punctuation. 

Part III. Miscellaneous, containing Titles, Forms of Ad- 
dress and Salutation, Abbreviations, Foreign Words and 
Phrases, Postal Information, and Business Forms. 

SoggestiOln to Teachers. — In view of the great educational 
and literary value of letter-writing, teachers should to a great extent 
substitute this exercise for the writing of ordinary " compositions." 
They will thus secure greater ease and freedom of expression than 
by tlie old method, and will at the same time give their pupils a prac 
tical acquaintance with the forms and peculiarities of letters. 

Part I. 



Special Notice. 

ChmuQ to the rapidly increasing use of the type-writing 
machine in correspondence, the author has thought proper 
to insert in the present edition of this work some special 
directioni applicable to type-written lettera, v}hich may 
he found on pages 66 and 67, 



IN discussing the subject of Letters, we shall treat. 
first, of the various kinds of letters ; secondly, of 
the materials required and the formalities to be ob- 
served in writing them ; thirdly, of their language, 
style, and other rhetorical requirements ; dJidi fourthly , 
of their value and characteristics as a department of 
literature. This division of our work will therefore 
consist of four chapters, as follows : — 

Chapter I. The Classification of Letters. 
Chapter II. The Structure of Letters. 
Chapter III. The Rhetoric of Letters. 
Chapter IV. The Literature of Letters. 

To the Teacher. — It is suggested that each pupil be required 
at the beginning of the course in letter- writing, and without consult- 
ing the book, to hand •in a tpedmen Utter to represent his present 
style. It may answer, in narrative form, the following questions : — 

1. Where do you live? 

2. Where did you last attend school ? 

3. What literary advantages have you enjoyed? 

4. What studies are you now pursuing ? 

This letter the teetcher will do well to keep till the close of the 
course, that he may then compare it with another specimen letter, 
and thus be able to measure the pupil's progress in this branch. 



Classification of Letters. 


- « . , r Domestic, 

( Introdactorv. etc 

ft T» . f Personal, 

2. Bu8ines8. \ Qg-^j^, 

3. Miscellaneous. 

4. Postal Cards. 

. II. Public, or Open. 

I. Private. 

Definition. — A Letter is a prose composition ad- 
dressed to some person or persons. 

Letters may be divided into two general classes, — 
1. Private, or Personal ; 2. Public, or Open. 

Private Letters. 

Private Letters are those that are intended only for 
those to whom they are addressed. They may be 
divided into three classes, — Social, Business, and Mis- 

Social Letters are letters of sentiment. They include 
the great mass of familiar correspondence, to which 
belong Domestic or Family letters, letters of Introduc- 



tion, of Congratulation, of Condolence, of Advice, of 
Affection, and, in a word, all letters that are prompted 
by love or friendship. The names of the various 
classes are so plainly descriptive as to render formal 
definitions unnecessary. 

A Business Letter, as its name implies, is a letter 

on business. 

Note. — A business letter shoald be exclusively such. Matters of 
a social or domestic nature should generally be in a separate letter. 

Business letters are of two kinds, — Personal and 

A Personal business letter is one on personal or pri- 
vate business. 

To this class belong the letters written by merchants, manufactu- 
rers, lawyers, bankers, and others, whether as individuals or as firms 
or companies, in connection with their trade or occupation. 

An Official business letter is one written to or by a 
person holding a public office, on business pertaining 

To this class belong letters to the executive or heads of depart- 
ments of a national, state, or municipal government, letters of army 
and navy officers, etc. 


Miscellaneous Letters include those letters of an acci- 
dental or unusual character, to which our complicated 
relations to society give rise; in short, all letters not 

elsewhere classified. 


Postal Cards.— The Postal Card is a letter in the form 
of a card. But little need be said of it, and that little 
may as well be said now. In the postal card many of 
the formalities of letters are dispensed with, and no 
attention is paid to style, except as to clearness and 



condensation. In this respect it resembles a telegram. 
The following directions should be observed : — 

1. A card should be dated either on the upper right-hand 
corner, or on the lower left-hand corner. 

2. The writer's full name should be signed to it. 

3. If an answer is required, the writer's full post-office 
address should be given, unless it is well known by the person 
to whom the card is directed. 

4. Important matters should not be entrusted to a postal 
card, as it is open to inspection, and as the law does not pro- 
vide for its return to the writer in case of failure to reach its 
destination. Nor is it allowable to use postal cards for notes 
of invitation, etc., in which society prescribes certain polite 
forms to be observed. 

5. Write on the face nothing but the name and directions. 
These are to be written as on the envelope of an ordinary let- 
ter (see page 57). 

Public Letters. 

Public Letters are letters in form only. They are 
essays or reports intended for the public, but addressed 
to some individual. The writers adopt this form be- 
cause it gives a personal interest to what they say, and 
because it admits of a more familiar style of treatment 
than a formal essay. 

To this class belong most of the letters published in the newspapers 
addressed either to the editor or to some distinguished public man. 

How Prepared for the Press. — In preparing manuscript 
for the press, the following directions should' be observed : 1. 
Write plainly. 2. Write on only one side of the paper. This 
rule is imperative. 3. Attend carefully to the spelling, capi- 
talH, paragraphing, and all the minor details of composition. 
This is the author's duty, not the printer's. 4. Number the 


Structure of Letters. 


1. Materials. — Paper, Envelopes, Ink. 

2. Heading. — Place, Date. 

, , f Address.* j g«^^!*; *"•' ™«' 

3. Intboduotion. \ ' (Residence. 

[ Salutation. 




Miscellaneous Suggestions. 

' Complimentary Close, 

5. Conclusion. - Signature, 

Address (if not at the top).* 

6. Folding. 

7. Sl'pkkscbiption, oe Outside Address. 
^ 8. St AMI*. 

4. Body. 

SECTION I.— Materials. 


1. Paper — Size, Color, etc. 

2. Envelopes — Size, Color, etc. 

3. Ink — Color. 

Fap^r. — The paper used should be such as is suit- 
able and intended for the purpose. It may now be 
had in infinite variety, adapted to all tastes and wants. 

*The Address is always written at the top of a business letter, and 
always at the bottom of a domestic letter (that is, a letter to a noai 



frly the kind known as kUci'-paper 
inches) was used exclusively ; and it 
.___LJL? • J) some extent, but mainly in business 
correspondence. Nine-tenths of the letters written 
now-a-days are on note-paper. This is of a great 
variety of styles and sizes. The most popular size is 
that known as ** commercial note," which is about 5 
by 8 inches. A kind much used by gentlemen is 
"packet note," which is about 5i by 9 inches. 

Never write a private letter on foolscap paper : to do 
80 is awkward, clumsy, and generally inexcusable. If 
compelled to use it, for want of any other, an apology 
should be offered. 

Never send a half-sheet letter, except on business.* 
and never send less than a half-sheet under any cir- 
cumstances. For a social letter, even if you writt 
only a line or two, use a whole sheet. To use part of 
a sheet looks mean and stingy, and is disrespectful to 
the receiver. 

Color. — No color is more elegant and tasteful than 
white, for any kind of letter, and gentlemen should 
use no other. Ladies may use delicately tinted and 
perfumed paper if they choose, but for a man to use it 
is, to say the least, in veiy bad taste. For business 
letters, no color is allowable but pure or bluish 

Persons who have lost a near relative may use 
"mourning paper" — that is, paper with a black border 

relative). In other letters it may be written at the tup or bottom, to 
suit the taste or convenience of the writer. (See Sec. III., p. 30 
also Sec. V., p 48.) 



— and envelopes to match; the width of the border 
corresponding somewhat to the nearness of the rela- 
tionship and the recentness of the bereavement. 

Lines. — A person, without violating good taste, may 
use either ruled or plain paper ; but plain or unruled 
paper is decidedly to be preferred, both because it is 
more stylish, and because it is more convenient, en- 
abling one to write close or open — to put much or 
little upon a sheet. Any one by diligent practice 
may learn to write straight without a guiding line, 
and the ability to do so is a valuable acquirement. 
Some persons who use unruled paper put "lines" 
under it. This practice is not to be commended, as it 
is inconvenient, and prevents that discipline of the 
hand which renders the writer independent of such 
help ; and besides, the best note-paper is too thick to 
allow lines to show through. 

Envelopes.— The envelope should be adapted, both 
in size and color, to the paper. 

Size. — If note-paper be used, the envelope should 
be a little longer than the width of the page. Letter- 
paper requires the same size of envelope as commer- 
cial note ; that is, about 3i by 5i inches. 

Fine imported papers are* cut into note-sheets for ordinary corre- 
spondence, to fold twice for an envelope 2| by 5^, and once for an 
envelope 3| by 4^. Smaller sizes may be used for notes of invi- 
tation, etc. 

Official letters, manuscripts for newspapers, legal 
documents, and all large communications sent by mail, 
should be enclosed in what are called official envelopes, 



which are about 9 inches long — long enough to. take 
in the full width of letter or foolscap paper.* 

Color. — Gentlemen may use either white or bufff 
envelopes in writing to each other ; but it is not allow- 
able to send a buff envelope to a lady, nor do ladies 
use that kind at all. If tinted paper is used, the 
envelope must have the same tint. 

Note. — The sizes of paper and envelopes above given are those 
that are regarded as standard — those that are always in fashion 
among sensible people. The styles of fine papeterie at a modern sta- 
tioner's are as capricious and variable as the figures of a kaleidoscope. 

Quality. — Both paper and envelopes should be of 
fine quality. It conduces to fine penmanship, and per- 
haps inspires the writer with fine thoughts. Coarse 
paper, coarse language, coarse thoughts, — all coarse 
things seem to be associated. 

Ink.— Never write a letter with red ink. Indeed, it 
is in better taste to discard all fancy inks, and use 
simple black. It is the most durable color, and one 
never tires of it. At one time purple ink was used 
in the War Department at Washington ; but the dis- 
covery was afterwards made that this color would 
fade, and an order was issued that all the records that 

* The sizes and designations of Government envelopes, which ar« 
gteuerally taken as the standard, are as follows: Note Size, 2| by 5i 
inches; Ordinary Letter Size, 3^ by 5i inches; Full Letter Size, 
3| by 5i inches ; Extra Letter Size, 3^ by 6f inches ; Official Size, 
3^ by 8^ inches : Extra Official Size, 4| by lOi inches. 

f By " buff" envelopes are meant all those colored envelopes (often 
of coarse quality) that are used by business men, whether described 
as light buff, dark buff, yellow, cream, or amber. 


had been made with purple ink should be recopied 
with black ink. 

Wax. — A few years ago sealing-wax was an indispensable 
article of stationery, but it has been rendered nearly obsolete 
by the almost universal use of gummed envelopes. It is now 
principally used on packages or letters containing money and 
other valuable enclosures, as an additional protection against 
their being feloniously opened, it being difficult to open a sealed 
letter without breaking the seal. Money packages sent by 
express are always sealed ; so too are foreign despatches. A 
lady of fine culture (to whom the author is indebted for many 
valuable suggestions) remarks as follows : — 

"Although the use of the tongue is admirably adapted to the hurry 
and press of business, it is not, if one thinks of it, a very elegant 
manner of closing a letter to a friend. A neat little seal of red wax 
for a gentleman, and of gold, blue, or other fancy color for a lady, 
will give a much more refined appearance to a note, than simply 
closing it with adhesive gum. Sealing is an art, however ; and to do 
it handsomely will require considerable practice." • 


SECTION II.— The Heading. 


rPost Office (or No. and Street), 
f 1. Place. \ County (or City), 

1. Pabts. ^^^^\ 

_ _ (Month, 

» 2. Date. ) Day of the Month, 
t Year. 

2. Position and Aeeanqement. 


I 4. Models. 

The Heading consists of the Place and the Daie, In 
other words, it is a statement of the place where, and 
time when, the letter is written. 


Place,— When a person is answering a letter, he gen- 
erally looks at the heading of it to see how his answer 
is to be directed. Hence, if the letter is written else- 
where than in a large city, the ** place " should em- 
brace at least two items, — the name of the post-office 
and the name of the state. The heading of a business 
letter should also embrace the name of the county. 
Indeed, in all letters the county should be named, 
either at the top or the bottom, unless the writer ie 
perfectly sure that it is well known to his correspond- 
ent. In a city, the number and street, city, and state 
should be given. If the city is very large, such as 
Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, the state need not 
be given. It would seem absurd to write, "530 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y." 

A person writing from a large school, a college, 
a hotel, or any well-known institution, generally 
writes the. name of the institution at the head, as in 
Model 3. 

Note. — On fine paper it is fashionable to have the writer's 
monogram, crest, or coat of arms printed near the top of the first 
page. The place of residence is also frequently printed at the head 
of the sheet — a practice which, for neatness and accuracy, is to be 
much commended. Business men almost always use paper with 
printed heading. 

Date.— The date consists of the -month, day of the 
mDnth, and year; as, "Sept. 14, 1874.'* It may also 
include the day of the week ; as, " Wednesday, Aug. 4, 
1876." In social letters and notes of transient interest 
the day of the week is more important than the year ; 
and the latter, in such cases, is often omitted. 


Note. — Business men sometimes write the number of the day 
before the month, instead of after it; thus: "Boston, 2 Sept., 1875." 
Something is gained in clearness, perhaps, by separating the numbers. 
" Sept. 2, 1875 " might, if poorly written or hurriedly read, be taken 
for "Sept. 21, 1875." 

Position and Arrangement.— On ruled paper, the head • 
ing should begin on the first line, a little to the left ol 
the middle ; and it may occupy one, two, or three 
lines (never more than three), according to circum- 
stances. If the paper is not ruled, the positions should 
be the same. 

Note. — The first line is generally about an inch and a half below 
the top of the page. A letter should never begin much higher than 
that ; but if the letter is to consist of but a few lines, it should be 
commenced lower, so that the spaces below and above the letter may 
be about equal. 

If the heading is short, it may be written on one 
line, as in Model 1 ; and it may be laid down as a rule, 
that the Jieading should occupy as few lines as possible^ 
consistent with neatness and legibility. 

Note. — The number of lines will depend, of course, on the length 
of the heading, the style of the writing, and the size of the paper. On 
note-paper, the heading will rarely require more than two lines ; on 
letter-paper, seldom more than one. 

If the heading occupies two lines, the second should 
begin about an inch farther to the right than the first, 
as in Model 2. 

If it occupies three lines, the second should begin 
farther to the right than the first, and the third than 
the second, as in Model 3 ; so that a line drawn through 


the initial letters will slope from a horizontal at an 
angle of about thirty degrees.* 

Caution. — If the *' place," or post-office address, occupiee 
two or more lines, care must be taken not to put part of a 
word, name, or date on one line, and part on tbe next. Foi 
example, in writing •• Broadway, New York," it would not do 
to write •' New " in one line, and " York " in the next. 

Letters without Heading. — Social letters are 
often dated at the bottom. This form is not so gen- 
erally adopted as to establish a rule ; but it has the 
sanction of some highly cultivated people, and may 
therefore be used if it is preferred. Letters written in 
the third person are generally dated at the bottom (see 
form on page 33). Business letters, however, are 
always dated at the top. 

When the place and date are written at the bottom, 
they must be begun near the left edge of the paper, on 
the next line below that on which the signature is 
written (see Model 6), and the parts arranged as above 
directed (page 21). Observe, too, that in this case 
the name of the person addressed must be written in 
the introduction, as iq Model 4, Sec. III., page 35. 

Punctuation.— The parts of the heading should be 
separated by commas, and a period should be placed 
at the end of the heading, and after each abbreviation. 

The parts of the heading are grammatically related. Thus, " Millers 
ville, Pa., Sept. 15, 1874," is equal to " This is written at MUlersville, 
which is in Pa., on Sept. 16th, in the year 1874" This indicates the 

* A similar slope must be given to the parts of the introduction, 
the conclusion, and the superscription, reference being in all cases 
had to the beginning, not the end. of the parts. 


proper order of the parts. " Lancaster County, Millersville," would 
imply that Lancaster County is in Millersville. 

It is not customary at the present day to write st, th, or d after 
the number denoting the day of the month, when the year is ex- 
pressed. Write Jan. 21, 1874, not Jan. 21st, 1874. When the year 
is not expressed, however, the letters must be suffixed ; as, " Yours 
of the 21st inst." When the letters are used, write them on the line. 
The ordinals Ist, £d, etc., are not abbreviations, and are not followed 
by % period. 

Model 1* 

Cy^^^ Of.^., O^u^. s^ ^i/s. 

Model 2. 

Model 3. 

Model 4. 

<>^^^^^^^i^w O^., cJ(e44A (^iA,, 


If preferred, this heading may be arranged as fol- 
lows : — 

Model 5* 

OT^i'i^ ^^^L^^ ^u^9^^ jj/, y//<^. 

Mote. — When the residence occupies more, than one line, il 
should be so divitled as to give each line a kind of completeness. 
(See Caution, p. 22.) It would not be well, for example, to write 
79 N. Oreene St., Baltimore, on the first line, and Md., July 6, 1875, 
on the second, for the reason that the latter part when standing alone 
seems imperfect. 

Model 6. 

Residence and Date at the bottom. 

(Place of Signature.) 

^y^n^^ O^k^^dd., On^iy. -/^ ^f/S. 


Copy the models neatly and accurately on note- 
paper, taking care to give to all the parts their proper 
place and proportion. 

Direction. — These headings may be written on the same sheet 
Divide the sheet into sections of about six lines each, by means of 
bla- k or red horizontal lines, and regard each section as the top (or 
fhe bottom, as the case may be) of a page. 

After the exercises have been corrected by the teacher, they should 
be copied in a book. This direction will apply to all exercises of this 

If the pages of the book are not of the proper size and shape, the 
pupil may mark out on them, with black or red ink, rectangular 
figures to represent pages of note-paper. These spaces can then be 
divided into sections, and the exercises written in them as above de- 
scribed. In ruling with pen and ink, be ffwrt to lay the bevelled side 
of the ruler on the paper. 



Write the following headings, arranging and punc- 
tuating them as they should be in a letter : — 

1. Conn New Haven Feb 3 1875 

2. 1874 July 27 New York 96 Pearl street 

3. Easton Pa Lafayette College Oct 4 1875 

4. Phila Chestnut St Continental Hotel Feb 24 1876 

5. Box 1077 111 Evanston Nov 11 1873. [The box takes the 
place of house and street.] 

6. The heading of a letter written at your own home. 

SECTION III.— The Inteoduction. 


, ^ f Address. \ N^°?« ^°^ ^itie. 

1. Parts. -^ (Residence. 

y Salutation, 

2. PosiTioir AiTD Aeeangement. 

3. Punctuation. 

4 MoT^FTs [ Business, 
I 4. MODELS. I g^^.^j ^^^ Miscellaneous. 

The Introductioiiy in business and other formal let- 
ters, consists of two parts, — the Address and the Sal- 
uiation ;* in familiar letters,- of the Salutation alone. 

The Address^ in its fullest form, consists of the Name 
and Title of the person written to, and his Residence 
(that is, the place where he receives his mail). 

* For convenience the long or business form of introduction is 
treated of first, bat the learner should be made to understand clearly 
that this form mtttt in no ease be iLsed in a familiar letter. (See y. 9l.\ | 


Remark. — The Address as here described is the same as tht 
Superscription, or what is put upon the envelope. Indeed the latter 
is often called "the address" of the letter. To distinguish the two. 
the former (that at the head or foot of the letter) may be designated 
as " the inside address ;" the latter (that on the envelope), as " the ^H^ 
tide address." 

The word Residence, which generally means private residence, or 
home, is here used (for want of a more appropriate term), to mean 
the place where the person addressed receives his mail, whether his 
home, boarding-place, post-office, or place of business. The term 
"post-office address" is sometimes used in the same sense. 

Name and Title. — The name should be written 
plainly and in full. And politeness requires that some 
title should be added to the name, unless the person 
is a member of the society of Friends. The ordinary 
titles are MisSy Mrs.^ Mr., and Esq. A boy is addressed 
as Master. 

Two of these titles of courtesy cannot be joined 
to the same name ; nor can they be used in connection 
with literary, professional, and military titles, such as 
Prof., Dr., Col., Hon., A.M., M. D., Ph.D., D. D., LL.D. 
To the latter part of this rule, however, there are one 
or two exceptions. When writing to a clergyman whose 
surname alone is known to us, we may write ^^Sev. 
Mr. Blank," the Mr. being in this case regarded as a 
substitute for the Christian name ; . and if a married 
man has a professional or literary title prefixed to his 
name, Mrs. may be used before it to denote his wife ; 
as, Mrs. Dr. Baker, Mrs. Secretary Stanton. Such 
combinations as ''Mr. John Smith, Esq.,'' ''Dr. Saw- 
bones, Esq.,'' and "Mr. Dr. Brown," are not to be 

Two literary oi professional titles may be added 


to one name if one does not include or presuppose the 
other ; thus : Prof. Edward Brooks, A. M.; Rev. Dr. 
Hall ; Eev. L. P. Hickok, D.D., LL.D. 

Wlien two or more titles follow a name, they must 
be written in the order in which they are supposed to 
have been conferred, so as to form an ascending series, 
or climax. The following, for example, are arranged 
in the proper order : A.M., M. D., I^h.D., D.D., LL.D., 
F. R. S. 

In writing to two or more persons, if they are men, 
the proper title is Messrs. (for Messieurs, gentlemen) ; 
if young ladies, Misses ; if married or elderly ladies, 
Mesdames (pronounced ma-dahm!). If none of these 
apply (if, for instance, the firm is composed of men 
and women), use no title. 

Residence. — The Residence 7mbst comprise the 
name of the post-office nearest the person addressed, 
and the state in which it is situated. If the post-office 
is not in a city, the name of the county should also be 
given. If it is in a city, the number of the house, the 
street, the dty, and the state should be given ; but if 
the city is a very large one, such as Baltimore or Cin- 
cinnati, the name of the state is not essential. (See 
Section II., page 20.) 

The address should not he omitted. The envelope 
being a mere wrapper, liable to be torn or lost, the 
letter itself should be self-explaining. It should con- 
tain not only the name and residence of the writer, 
but also the name and residence of the person to whom 
it is written. In business letters, indeed, the full 


address is almost indispensable, and it is generally 
given in full, as in Models 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. In other 
letters an abbreviated form of address, consisting of 
the name alone, is much used. (See Model 4.) This 
form of address is appropriate in social letters written 
to mere acquaintances or strangers; also in brief or 
informal business letters; but no form of address 
should be used at the beginning of a familiar letter. 
In this case the address should be written at the 
end, for the reason stated on page 31. 

The Salutation. — The Salutation is the term of po- 
liteness, respect, or affection, with which we introduce 
a letter ; such as, Dear Sir, My dear Ftiend, My deai 
and hcmored Father, etc. 

In business letters, the term generally employed in 
writing to a gentleman is Sir, Dear Sir, or My dear 
Sir."^ In writing to a firm, Sirs may be substituted for 
Sir in the above expressions, or the much-abused term. 
Gentlemen, may be employed. (See Models 1, 2, and 3.) 
liever lose the vulgar contraction, '* Gents'' for ''GerUle- 
men,'' nor ^'Dr." for ''Dear." 

A military officer is saluted as Captain, Colonel, 
General, etc., as the case may be, or simply as Sir; a 
naval officer, as Sir; a governor of a state, as Your 
Excellency, Governor, or Sir; the mayor of a city as 
Your Honor, or Sir, etc., etc. 

Reference. — A full classified list of official titles and salutations 
will be found in Part III., pages 216, 223. 

* Dear Sir is a more familiar term than Sir, and implies previous 
acquaintance or correspondence ; My dear Sir is more familiar than 
Dear Sir, and implies not only acquaintance but friendship. 


In a business letter addressed to a married woman 
or a single woman not young, the proper salutation is 
MadAvrriy Dear Madarriy or My dear Madam (Model 4) ; 
to two or more, married or single, Ladies. In a.busi- 
ness letter to a young unmarried lady, the salutation 
is generally omitted to avoid the repetition of Miss^ 
the address alone being used as introduction (as in 
Model 9); or else the address is reserved for the 
bottom of the letter, and the salutation Miss Blank is 
used (" Blank " standing for the lady's surname). 

Bemabe. — In writing to a lady who is a stranger or a mere 
acquaintance, persons often feel a delicacy (unnecessarily so, it seems 
to us) about saying " Dear Miss Blank " or " Dear Madam." Dear 
does not mean any more in this case than it does m " Dear Sir." 
Surely no lady would hesitate to use the latter form of address in 
writingato a gentleman of her acquaintance ; and the gentleman would 
be a fool to suppose she intended to make love to him by so doing. 

When Miss or Dear Miss is used in the introduction, it must be fol- 
lowed by the lady's name ; as, " Miss Flora May," " Dear Miss Barnes." 

Most of the forms of salutation used in business 
letters are equally appropriate in many other letters. 
It would be absurd to attempt to prescribe set forms 
for all the varieties of social correspondence : the par- 
ticular expression to be used depends, of course, upon 
the feelings or fancy of the writer, and his relation to 
the person addressed. Strangers may be addressed 
iis Sir, Miss Clark, or Madam; acquaintances, as 
Dear Sir, Dear Miss Brovni, or Dear Madam ; friends, 
as Dear Friend, Friend Mary, Friend Smith, My dea/r 
Smith, etc. ; near relatives and other very dear friends, 
by such terms as My dear Father, My dear Daughter, 
My precious Child, Beloved Husband, Darlvng Wife, 


Dearest Mary, My good-for-nothing Brother (playfui 
style), My dear Charles, My dear Blanche, etc., etc. 

Note. — Young and sentimental persons are apt to indalgo in 
extravagant and " gushing " salutations, such as " Sweetest and best 
of Girls," " Darlingest of Darlings/' etc. Such expressions sound 
very flat and silly to sensible people. Those who express their feel- 
ings in this way are generally too shallow to be capable of entertain 
ing a really strong and lasting affection. 

Position and Arrangement. — The Introduction, aa 
already stated, may consist of the address and saluta- 
tion, or of the salutation alone. In the latter case the 
address is placed at the end of the letter, forming part 
of the Conclusion (see page 50). Hence the question 
arises, When should the address he vrritten at the begin- 
ning of a letter, and when at the end f This question 
we proceed to answer. 

Plage op the Addeess. — In business letters not 
official, the address is always written at the top. 

In military and other official business letters, the 
address is sometimes written at the top and sometimes 
at the bottom. 

For example, General Grant writing to General Lee, under date of 
April 7, 1865, uses the following introduction, thus placing the address 
at the beginning of the letter : — 

General R. E. Lee, commanding C.8.A. 
General: etc. 

General Lee in his answer of same date introduces the letter 
simply with the salutation, " General," and writes the address at th# 
bottom in the following words : — 

To Lieutenant General TJ. S. Grant, 

CommaTiding Armies oj the United States. 

In another letter to General Grant, dated April 9th, Greneral Leo 
places the address at the beginning. 


In ordinary letters the address may, in many cases, 
be put at the beginning or at the end, as the writer 
may prefer. It is better, however, in writing to a 
stranger or to a person with whom we are but slightly 
acquainted, to put the address at the top, as in a per- 
sonal business letter; there being a certain distance 
and formality implied in this method. And for this 
reason it is obviously improper to use this form in a 
domestic letter ; that is, in a letter to a near relative or 
very intimate friend. In this case the address should 
be written at the bottom. (Model 3, p. 51.) 

Arrangement of the Address. — The address 
should begin at the marginal line — that is, from one- 
fourth of an inch (on ladies' note-paper) to one inch 
(on letter-paper) from the left edge of the sheet — and 
on the first line (or the second) below the date. (See 
remarks on " Margin," p. 39.) 

It may occupy three lines, two lines, or one line. 
The first line of the address should contain the name 
and title alone; because the name of the post-office, if 
written after the name of the person, on the same line, 
may be mistaken for the person's surname. 

For example, " Mr. M. Blair, Fleming," may easily be mistaken for 
' Mr. M. B. Fleming," especially if, as is often the case, the punctua- 
(ion is neglected. 

The residence, or post-office address, may occupy one 
line or two, according to length. It should neither bo 
strung across the page on one line, nor run down the 
page like cellar-stairs. 

If the last item of the residence is a short word, such as Ohio, or 
an abbreviation, such as Pa., Va , Ky., or N. Y., it should be written 


on the same line as the preceding item, not on a separate line. The 
following forms will illustrate our meaning : — 

2. Correct Arrangement. 

John O. Saze, Esq., 
Albany, N. F. 

1. Faulty Arrangement. 

John G. Saxe, Esq., 


The first arrangement is the proper one for the outside addreai. 
(See page 60.) 

If the address is written in two or three lines, their 
initial letters should be in a line sloping downward to 
the right, at about the same angle as that of the head- 
ing. (See Models 4 to 10 ; also refer to page 21.) 

Place of the Salutation. — If the address makes 
three lines ^ the salutation should begin under the 
initial letter or figure of the second line, as in Model 5 ; 
or under that of the first, as in Model 6. The former 
arrangement is preferred, as it makes a more effective 
and pleasing display than any other. 

If the address makes two lines, the salutation should 
begin about an inch farther to the right than the 
second line, as in Model 7 ; or else under the initial 
letter of the first, as in Model 8. The former is prefer- 
able on a wide sheet, the latter on a narrow one. 

If the address makes but one line, the salutation 
should begin about an inch to the right of the mar- 
ginal line, a*^ in Model 4. 

Caution. — lake care that no two successive lines, in the head- 
ing, the introduction, the conclusion, or the superscription, begin 8< 
the same vertical line. 

If there is no address at the top (as in domestic 
letters), the salutation should begin at the marginal 
iine, as in Model 1. 


In familiar letters, the salutation is often incorpo- 
rated in the first sentence of the letter, as in Model 2. 
In that case the letter begins a little to the right of the 
marginal line — that is, at the paragraph line — and a 
blank line should be left under the heading. 

Letters without Introduction. — A very formal 
letter is generally written in the third person ; that is, 
the person to whom it is sent is spoken of instead of to. 
A letter so written has neither. address *nor salutation. 
The following is an example : — 

WiU Mr. Clarke oblige Mrs. Sumner by loaning her, until to-moiTow, 
the hist number of the Atlantic Monthly {ij he is not v^ing it), as it 
contains an article which she very much desires to read. Her own copy 
hai been mislaid. 

Laurel Hill, Friday, Nov. fSO. 

Letters in the third person may be properly styled " notes," and 
they will be treated of under that head. The place and date, in such 
letters, are generally (not always) written at the bottom, as in the 
above example. (See page 155.) 

Punctnation.— A period should be placed at the end 
of the address, whether it consists of the name alone 
(Model 4), or the name and residence (Model 5). If 
the residence is given, place a comma after the name, 
and after each item of the residence except the last. 

If a title follows the name, it must always be sepa- 
rated from it by a comma ; and if two titles are used, 
a comma must be placed between them ; thus : John 
McClintock, D. D., LL.D. 

Every abbreviation must be followed by a period ; 
M, Millersville, Lane. Co., Pa. 

The salutation, being in the nominative case inde- 
pendent, should in general be follow ^4. \s^ ^ Q,Q"aKxsis^\ 


or, if the letter begins on the same line, by a comma 
and a dash. In a letter to a very high and dignified 
personage, or to any one with whom we are not on 
familiar terms, a colon is preferable. 

Note. — Great irregularity prevails in the punctuation of t'le 
introduction. Many persons put a comma after the address, thinking, 
perhaps (if they think about it at all), that the address and saluta- 
tion are in apposition. This is not the case. They are not, in fact, 
in the same grammatical person. The address is in the third person, 
while the salutation is in the second. Take the following example : — 

Ren. ThomoB D. Wheeler, 
Lancaster, Fa. 

Lear J^r, — etc. 

Here to i? understood before the name; and the construction is, 
" This is written to Rev. Thomas L. Wheeler, living at Lancaster, which 
is in Pennsylvania." Having written this down, as a sort of memo- 
randum, we turn to our correspondent and say Lear JSir, — etc. TIm 
address is obviously in the same construction when at the beginning 
as when at the end of a letter — and of its construction in the latter 
case there can be no question. The word to is often expressed before 
the name, thus clearly indicating the grammatical person ; as, — 
To the Editor of the Tribune. 
Sir: — etc. 

When the address consists of the name alone, many persons place 
a colon after it, thus : — 

Mr. Ralph Waldo Emerson: 
My dear Sir, — etc. 

There it very respectable authority for this punctuation ; but with 
<lue respect for the opinion of those who use the colon, we decidedly 
prefer the period, for the reason stated above. 

Never use a semicolon after any part of the address. 

Please notice carefully the punctuation of the models on pages 35, 
36 and 37. 

Capitals. — Every important word of the address must begin 
with a capital ; also the first word and every noun in the salutation 
Consult the models; also see Rules for Capitals in Fart III 



Model !• — Social Form (Familiar). 

Model 2« — Social Form ( Unconventional), 

^ce-a^^ j/fu^ea^-ez^ '€i4,44^u-e^ '^--ez^i^^^ -tf^. 

Model 3* — Social Form. 

Cy-A^ ^^^^^ ^!€l^lAa4, 't^€ld 

When the name of the correspondent is not given at the top (as in 
Models 1, 2, and 3), it should be written at the bottom, as directed 
on pages 31 and 50. In addressing a member of the religious society 
of Friends, no title is used. 

Model 4« — Social Form (Formal), 


Model 5* — Butinet* Form. 

Note. — The body of the letter usually begins under the end of the 
salutation, but when the address is long, as in the above and the fol- 
lowing model, it should begin in the same line as the salutation, in 
which case a dash must precede it. 

Model 6* — Buaiuett Form, 

Note. — It will be observed that in Model 5 the salutation begins 
under the initial figure of the second line, while in Model 6 it begins 
under the initial letter of the first. (See page 32.) 

Model 7« — Butineat Form. 

Cyf%edd4d. ^^f^itrLu-e^ J^i^tAe-t/ (/ ©^-^^^ 


Or the parts may be arranged as follows : — 

Model 8« — Bueinega Form. 
C^lnQ)€.d<Ptd. ^^f^'nt'ue^^^ J^^4>iAe4,'t c^ ^^fiit^td^ 

Model 9« — Bueinesti Form {to a Lady), 

Or the introduction, " Miss Clara F. Abbott," without the residence, 
may be used ; or simply, " Miss Abbott." If the lady were married. 
Madam, or Dear Madam, would follow the address, as in Model 4. 

Model 10*— Pjfficial Form. 



Copy carefully the 1st, 2d, 4th, 6th, 7th, and 9th 
of the foregoing models. [Copy all the models if there 
is time.] 


Write in proper form, and punctuate, the following 
introductions, using capital letters where they are re- 
quired (see models): — 

1. dear Friend Your favor, etc. 

2. my Dear friend Your letter, etc. 

3. Mr John smith my dear sir Please, etc. 
4 dear miss Jackson do tell me, etc. 

5. prof Charles Thompson Kirkville Mo Dear sir please 
Bend me a catalogue, etc. 

6. hon J. P. Wickersham superintendent of public instruc- 
tion Pa Harrisburg dear sir the information you require, etc. 


Write and punctuate the following headings and 
introductions, rearranging when necessary : — 

1. Cambridge Mass Feb 10 1874 Mr James F Hammond 
421 Broadway New York Dear Sir in reply, etc. 

2. Fifth avenue The Windsor N Y May 25 1875 my dear 
miss Adams I owe you a thousand thanks, etc. 

3. Monday Hawthorne cottage June 15 1876 Your lettei 
my dear friend is a new proof of the goodness of your heart 
[The order of the words "Your letter, my dear friend," etc., 
is not to be changed.] 

4. Jan 2 1844 London Devonshire terrace my very deai 

^ — ■ - ■ .-■■■- ^^ 

* See Direction on page 24, under Exercise I. 


felton you are a prophet and had best retire from business 

5. Pa Wyoming Seminary Kingston March 15 1875 Dr Noah 
Porter Pres of Yale College Sir Allow me commend to your 
special care, etc. 

SECTION IV.-* The Body of the Letteb. 


1. The Beginning. 

2. Mabgin. 

3. Paeagraphing. 

4. Penmanship. 

The Body of the letter is the communication itself, 
exclusive of the heading, introduction, and conclusion. 

Remark. — In this place we propose to speak merely of the /orm, or 
mechanical execution, of letters. Their style and characteristics as a 
species of composition will be treated of in a separate chapter. (See 
Chap. III., p. 70.) 

The Begrinningr*— The Body of the letter should gen- 
erally begin, as already stated (page 36), under the 
end of the salutation ; but when the address is long, 
as in Models 5, 6, 7, and 10 (pages 36, 87), it may be- 
gin on the same line. 

Note. — When this is the case, a comma and a dash (or colon and 
dash' must be placed between the salutation and the first word of the 
bodj of the letter, as in Model 3, already referred to. 

Margin.— A blank margin should always be left on 
the left-hand side of each, page — ^rvot ow ^Jcv^ Tv^ic^*. "''^^ 


width of this margin should vary with the width of the 
page. On large letter-paper it should be about three- 
fourths of an inch ; on' note-paper about one-fourth of 
an inch — nearly equal to the thickness of a common 
lead -pencil. A margin that is too wide looks worse 
than one that is too narrow. 

The tnargin should be perfectly even. If necespary, 
draw a light pencil-mark with a soft pencil, parallel 
with the edge of the paper, as a guide to the writing :• 
but he sure to erase it after the letter is written. 

Another way is to rule a heavy black marginal line on a separate 
piece of paper or cardboard, and lay this under the page to be written 
on, so that the line will show through. A paragraph line may be 
drawn on the same sheet. Two or tliree of these blanks may be kept 
on hand for different sizes of paper. All these helps should be dis 
pensed with, however, as soon as possible. They are but crutches, at 
best, and should be thrown away as soon as you can walk without 

Paragraphing.— Letters, a;s well as other compo- 
sitions, should be divided into paragraphs, if they 
speak of different and disconnected things. For ex- 
ample, if, after speaking of affairs at home, the writer 
turns to speak of himself, he should make a new 

Do not make too many paragraphs. Sometimes per- 
sons make the mistake of making a paragraph of every 
sentence. It is a matter that depends wholly on the 
sense. A letter may consist of only a single paragraph. 

Some persons suppose that a new paragraph should 
begin directly under the end of the old one. This is a 
mistake, as any one may see by opening a printed 
book. All the paragraphs after the first (which, in a 


letter, is an exception) should b6gin at the same dis- 
tance from the edge. This distance varies somewhat, 
according to the width of the paper. On a large letter- 
sheet, the paragraphs should begin about an inch to 
the right of the marginal line^ that is, the line of 
writing ; on note-paper, they should begin about three- 
fourths of an inch to the right of this line. Some per- 
sons draw two lines — a marginal line and a paragraph 
line — as guides. If lines are drawn, let them be erased 
before the letter is sent. If preferred, "lines" may be 
placed under the leaf, as described in a previous para- 
graph (see under Margin). 

Remark. — The blank space at the begiuning of a paragraph is 
called an indentation. 

Penmanship. — Letter-writing presupposes the ability 
to write a legible hand. But we should not be satis- 
fied with mere legibility : we should endeavor to attain 
to neatness and elegance. The practice of correspond- 
ence, if care be used, will greatly conduce to this end ; 
but a careless habit of writing letters not only fails to 
improve the hand, but actually spoils a good hand 
already formed. 

Many persons write letters so hurriedly as to slur over the 
words, half-forming or c^cforming many of the letters, and 
sometimes leaving half of the word represented by a 3ort of 
wavy line. This way of writing is injurious to the writer and 
disrespectful to the recipient of the letter. A letter so written 
is vexatious and unsatisfactory to the reader ; as much so as 
an oral communication would be in which the words were 
uttered with a mumbling and indistinct articulation. It is 
true that some great men write a very bad hand, so that their 
letters are almost indecipherable; bvit Vi \)[iftYt \fe\XfcT^ ^.'t^ >^^c^- 


able with such a defect, how much more so they would b« 
without it ! It should be remembered, too, that a man of estab- 
lished reputation can better afford to be indiflferent to the 
minor proprieties than one who has his reputation to make , for 
defects which in the former are scarcely noticed, are in the 
latter conspicuous and intolerable. A person who prid^ him- 
self on his bad writing, thinking it a sign of smartness, is un- 
consciously a witness to the truth of Pope's couplet, — 

" Pride, where wit fails, steps in to our defence, 
And fills up all the mighty void of sense." 

This, then, is our advice : Take pains ; write as 
plainly and neatly as possible — rapidly if yoii can, 
slowly if you must. Good writing affects us sympa- 
thetically, giving us a higher appreciation both of what 
is written and of the person who wrote it. Don't say, 
I haven't time to be so partibular. Take time; or 
else write fewer letters and shorter ones. A neat and 
well-worded letter of one page once a month is better 
than a slovenly scrawl of four pages once a week. 
In fact, bad letters are like store bills : the fewer 
and the shorter they are, the better pleased is the 

1. Style of Writing. — All flourishing is out of place 
in a letter. The writing should be plain and, if pos- 
sible, elegant, so that it may be both easy to read and 
gratifying to the taste. The most fashionable style for 
ladies is what is called the English running-hand. A 
rather fine hand is preferable for ladies, and a medium 
one for gentlemen. A person who writes a large hand 
should use large paper and leave wide spaceb between 
the lines. 


2. Shipping Pages. — After reaching the bottom of 
the first page, it is generally better to continue the 
letter on the second, instead of passing to the third; 
because the writer may find more to say than he at 
first thought of, and after having filled the first and 
third pages, may be compelled to go back to the 
second, and thence to the fourth. 

If by accident or otherwise it becomes necessary to write on the 
second page after the third, the lines should run lengthwise of the 
sheet. ^ Some cultivated ladies write in this way from choice * but, 
with due respect for their taste, we decidedly prefer the other method; 
namely, that of writing on successive pages, with lines running the 
same way on all, as they are in a printed book. 

3. Grossing. — Many persons, ladies especially, have 
a habit of crossing their letters. It is better not to do 
it. If one sheet is not large enough to hold all you 
have to say without crossing, take an extra half- sheet, 
or a sheet if need be. Crossing does not seem to be 
entirely respectful to your friend; for it implies 
(though he may not so understand it) that you do not 
think enough of him to use any more paper on his 
account. Besides, crossed writing is hard to read; 
and you have no right to task your friend's eyesight 
and tax his time by compelling him to decipher it. 
Cross-lining came into use when paper was dear and 
postage high. Then there was some excuse for it. 
Now there is none. 

4. Blots and Inter lineaMons. — Of course no blots 
are allowable. Better rewrite the letter than send a 
blotted one. And avoid, as far as possible, interlinea- 
tions and erasures. A few words may b^ \xA.<«\xx\fc^\\\. 

44 LETTER - WlilTINO. 

a very small hand, but even a single interlined word 
mars the beauty of a page. A letter should be regarded 
not merely as a medium for the communication of 
intelligence, but also as a work of art. As beauty of 
words, tone, and manner adds a charm to speech, sc 
elegance of materials, writing, and general appearance, 
enhances the pleasure bestowed by a letter. 

SECTION v.— The Conclusion. 


( 1. Parts.- 

1. Complimentary Close, 

2. Signature, 

3. Address.* 

2. Position and Arrangement. 

3. Punctuation. 
^ 4. Models. 

What is technically known as the Conclusion of a 
letter is that which is added after the communication 
itself is finished. It consists of the C(yinplirnentary 
Close,, the Signcdure, and sometimes (when not at the 
top) the Address of the person written to. 

Complimentary Close.— The Complimentary Close is 
the phrase of courtesy, respect, or endearment used at 
the end of a letter. 

As in the salutation, the particular words used vary 
according to circumstances. 

* See foot-note on page 15 ; also the remarks on the position of 
the address on pages 30 and 31. 


Sojial letters admit of an almost infinite variety of 
forms of complimentary close. The following are a 
few out of many examples that might be given : — 

Your friend ; Your sincere friend ; Yours with esteem ; Yours 
very respectfully; Your loving daughter; Your affectionate 
father ; Ever yours ; Yours affectionately and for ever (Jeffer- 
son) ; Ever, my dear Fields, faithfully yours (Dickens) ; Evei 
your affectionate friend (Dickens) : Yours heartily and affec- 
tionately (Dickens); Now and always' your own; Ever, my 

dear Mr. , most gratefully and faithfully yours (Miss Mit- 

ford) ; I am, my dearest friend, most affectionately and kindly 
yours (John Adams to his wife) ; Believe me always your 
affectionate father (Sir Walter Scott) ; Yours very sincerely 
(Hannah More) ; Your obliged and affectionate friend (Bishop 
Heber) ; Sincerely and entirely yours. 

Remark. — In familiar letters the form of close used is generally 
that prompted hy the feeling at the moment. . It is proper that the 
language should seem spontaneous and natural, hut at the same time 
it should he nicely adapted to the relation of the parties — not too 
familiar nor too formal. It should also have some reference to the 
form of salutation used, so that it may not seem tautological or incon 
sistent. For example, after having written at the beginning, My 
dear IViend, it would not be well to write, Your friend or Tours 
respectfuUy at the close. Having already called him " friend," the 
phrase "your friend" is tautological; and having called him "dear 
friend the word " respectfully," being somewhat cold and formal, 
ts inconsistent. It would be better to write " Yours very truly," 
" Ever yours," or something equally familiar. 

In bicsiness letters, or letters of any kind written to 
strangers or mere acquaintances, the customary form is 
•'Yours truly," or *' Your^respectfully." These may 
be emphasized by very^ as " Yours very truly ;" or 
varied by inversion, as ** Truly yours." 

Official letters have a more stately ^x^.^Lioroi^^'^'e^ 



than any other. The following are approved foi*ms- 
the first being in the diplomatic style : — 

/ have the honor to be, Sir, 

With the highest consideration. 
Your obedient servant, 

A B . 

I have the honor to be (or remain*)^ 
With much respect. 

Your obedient servant, 
G D 

I have the honor to be (or remain). 
Your obedient servant, 

E F . 

I have the honor to be (or rema,in). 
Very respectfully. 

Your most obedient servant, 

O H . 

lam. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

I K . 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

L M 

These forms of strict official etiquette are often 
<Hbbreviated, however, to " Yours very respectfully," 
* Very respectfully," or " Respectfully." 

Remark. — The form " Your obedient servant," once so common, 
18 now mostly confined to officialj^^tters. It is too undemocratic to 
suit the taste of our people. In writing to a patron or superior, how- 
ever, it is a very appropriate form of complimentary close. 

* Remain implies previous correspondence. 


Sigrnature.— On this subject the following directiona 
should be carefully observed : — 

1. Every letter should he signed. 

This direction seems superfluous ; and yet it is not so, for 
many a letter is carelessly sent without signature, leaving the 
receiver to guess, if he can, by whom it was written. 

2. If the letter contains anything of importan/ie^ the 
name should he writien in full. 

The reason of this is, that otherwise the letter is liable to 
be lost. A letter that, on account of the death or absence of 
the person to whom it is written, or for any other cause, fails 
to reach its destination, is sent to the Dead Letter Office. 
There it is opened, and if it contains the name and residence 
of the writer, it is returned to him. Many thousand dollars 
enclosed in lettere are thus returned to the senders every year ; 
and many thousands are retained by the Post Office Depart- 
ment, because the writers did not sign their names in full or 
did not give their post-office address. If letters contain nothing 
but sentimental twaddle or idle gossip, they may be signed 
" Hattie," or " Fannie," or " Tom ;" but if letters are worth 
anything, both the name and the residence of the writer should 
be written in full. 

3. The na/me should he plainly vrritten, A person's 
signature may be plain enough to himself, and yet be 
to a stranger worse than a Chinese puzzle. 

Such a signature often drives business men and printers 
almost to distraction. Sometimes, in addressing the reply, a 
person is compelled to cut out the signature and paste it on the 

4. If the writer is a lady, she should, in writing to 
a stranger, so sign her name as to indicate not only her 
Bex, but also whether she is married or single. 


If a letter written by Miss Wilson, for example, is signeu 
J. E. Wilson, how is one to know whether to begin the answe; 
with Sir, Miss, or Madam, and whether to address it to Mr., 
Miss, or Mrs. J. E. Wilson ? A person is thus placed in an 
unpleasant dilemma: he must either commit the apparent rude- 
ness of addressing the lady without a title, or else run the risk 
of making a mistake. 

The last direction may be complied with by prefix- 
ing Miss or Mrs. to the name ; thus : Miss Alice Earle, 
There is no indelicacy in doing so in this case ; but 
should there seem to be, the title may be enclosed in 
curves; thus: (Miss) Anna Ward. A married lady 
generally uses her husband's name, if he is living, with 
the title Mrs. before it; thus: Mrs. Edward Brooks. 
She mai/, however, use her own name, and if she is a 
widow, she should do it. (See Social Titles, p. 208.) 

Remark. — A lady mast not prefix the title to her name, except in 
writing to a stranger or to an inferior. It would be disrespectful to 
do so in writing to a friend of equal or superior social position. 

In a strictly official letter, the writer's official desig- 
nation is written after or below his name, and forms 
part of the signature ; thus : — 

J. Eaton, 
Commissioner of Education. 

Tlife Address.— This subject having been fully treated 
of in Section III. (see page 25), it is unnecessary to do 
more in this place than call attention to what is then^ 
said. It may be further remarked, however, that 
the address is not only a safeguard and convenience, 
but also, to some extent, a matter of courtesy. To 
omit it, even in a letter to a near relative, savors of 


In writing to a father, for example, after having satisfied 
the claims of affection and kinship by the use of such terms as 
"Dear Father," " Your affectionate Daughter," etc.. it is proper 
to satisfy the claims of politeness and the pride of manhood by 
giving his full name, together with any title or titles of cour- 
tesy or distinction that are justly his due. One should be as 
polite to his father as to any one else. How many of the boys 
and girls of to-day forget this ! 

Position and Arrangement. — The cornplimentary close 
is written on the next line below the end of the lettei 
proper. If too long to look well in one line, it may 
occupy two or even three lines. 

The signature is written on the next line below the 
complimentary close, near the right-hand edge of the 

The close and signature must be arranged similar to 
the parts of the heading and introduction ; that is, 
they must present a regular slope downward and to 
the right. To effect this, observe the following — 

Rule : Begin the complimentary close on a line con- 
ceived to he drawn from the beginning of the last line 
of the letter, to the beginning of the signature. 

If the close consists of two or three parts (as in the 
official forms given on page 46), each part should begin 
on this imaginary line. 

An exception must be made to the above rule when the sig- 
nature is very long : in that case it may begin a little farther to 
ihe left than the close ; thus : — 

Yours respectfully, 
Cabbinoton, Leslie k Blanohabd. 

Caution. — The close and the signature should never begin at the 
same vertical hne. 


The address, when it forms part of -the conclusion, is 
written on the next line below the signature, near the 
left-hand edge, and the parts of it are arranged the 
same as when written at the top of the letter. 

If thtf writer's post-office address is not fully given at the 
top of the letter, it may be given at the bottom. Wlien t-hia 
is the case, it should be written under the signature; thus: — 

Youn respeetfuUy, 

FsAKKLiR A. Scott, 

HonesdaUy Wayne Co., BnL 

Or the words Iteate addrtts, or simply Address^ may be snbsti- 
tnied for the complimentary close ; thofi : — 

HeoM (iddru*— 

Wm. D. Hojtetwell, 
SaUjn, Ohio. 

Or (if the space is not otherwise occupied) the residence may 

be given at the left ; thus : — 

Your* truly, 

JoHS Wauler, 
Itecue direct the cmnoer to — 

Union OoUegey 

Schenectady, N. Y. 

PuctwitkNU— A comma is required after the compli- 
mentary close, and a period after the signature. K the 
close is long, other points may be required, as may be 
seen by consulting the examples given above, and the 
models given below. The Address, when placed at 
the bottom, is punctuated the same as when placed at 
the top of the letter. (See page 33.) 


(The dotted line stands for the last line of the letter.) 

Model 1. 

Model 2. 

Model 3. — IFi/A AddretM, 

S^Ufyu^t^c^e^oe Sis. Cy, 


Model 4.— O^Seto^. 

Model 5.— TFttA Bait. 

^l^^Myy^ '^CUC'C^ ^^^2^^^ 

£0^ y<f/<^. 


Write the following conclusions, punctuating and 
capitalizing as in the foregoing models :* — 

1. Very respectfully Yours H Graham. 

2. I am sir very respectfully your obedient humble servant 
Bcnj Franklin. 

3. Your ever faithful Husband James Willis (to) Mrs Eliza 
Willis Bedford Pa 

4. Eternally yours Evelyn Hope Cosey cottage may 1 1876. 
(See Model 5.) 

» Represent the last line of the letter by a dotted or a wavy line. 


Oral Exercise. — Analyze e^ch conclusion, pointing 
out the complimentary close, the signature, and, if 
given, the address. 


[As a preparation for this exercise it is well to review Sections I., 
n., III., and IV. One of the letters may he written on the first 
page and the other on the third page of a sheet of note-paper.] 

Write, in accordg^nce with all the preceding direc- 
tions, the following letters :— 


Heading: State Normal School Albany N Y Oct 5 1874 

Introduction : Messrs Jas R Elliott & Co Boston Mass Gen- 

Body: Enclosed find P. 0. order for Four Dollars ($4), for 
which please send me the Literary Monthly for one year, be- 
ginning with the September number. 

Con^clusion: Yours very respectfully (Sign your own name.) 


Heading: Wyoming seminary Kingston Pa Dec 20 18'7?>. 

Introduction : My dear brother. 

Body: This is to be a business letter, and therefore it must 
be, as the book says, "brief and to the point." Well, the point 
is this : I start for home on Thursday next (the 23d), and 
would be pleased to have you meet me at the depot at 6 : 15 p. if. 
Oh, I can hardly wait for the time to come ; I am so eager to 
see you all. [Write- the '* body" precisely as printed.] 

Conclusion : Yours Lovingly Caroline May (to) Mr. Thomas 
May Binghamton N Y. 





' 1. Note-Paper — Four Ways. 

2. Letter-Papeb — Two Ways. 

3. The Iitseetion op the Letter. 

Having given directions for the heading, introduc- 
tion, body, and • conclusion of a letter, we are now 
ready to fold it. This is a very simple matter, yet it 
is often very awkwardly done. 

It is here presupposed that the envelope is adapted to the paper, as 
directed on page 17 ; if it is not so, the writer must exercise his own 
ingenuity in the matter, as no directions can be given to cover such 

Note-Paper.— We will first suppose that the sheet 
lies upon the table, the first page up, and the bottom 
toward us. There are now four ways in which it 
may be folded; the method depending on the size 
and shape of the envelope. Each way requires two 

First Way. — If the envelope is of the proper length 
— ^that is, a little longer than the width of the sheet — 
we proceed thus : — 

1. Turn the bottom up about one-third the .ength 
of the sheet ; 

2. Turn the top down in the same manner, and 
press the folds down neatly. 

In this way are folded nearly all the letters that are written oo 


Second Way. — ^If the envelope is shorter than the 
width of the sheet, the letter should be folded thus : — 

1. Turn the bottom up to meet the top ; 

2. Bring the right and left edges together. 

Third Way. — ^Under the last supposifion, if the 
paper is thick, the following is the better way : — 

1. Fold lengthwise, bringing the right and left edges 
nearly or quite together; then, 

2. Bring top and bottom together, or as nearly so as 
necessary to fit the envelope. , 

Fawrih Way. — A large square envelope, such as 
ladies sometimes use, requires only one operation; 
namely, to bring the bottom and top of the gteet 

Letter-Paper.— A sheet of lettet-paper may be folded 
in two ways, — -jirst^ to fit an ordinary letter envelope 
(the same size that is required for commercial note) ; 
second, to fit an oflBcial envelope. (Se6 sizes, page 17.) 

Mrst Way. — In folding for an ordinary envelope, 
there are three operations : — 

1. Turn the bottom edge up so as to meet the top 
(or as nearly so as necessary to fit the Envelope) ; 

i Turn the right edge over one-third the width of 
the sheet ; 

3. Turn the lefb edge over it, and press the folds 
down neatly. 

The first operation reduces the sheet externally to the exact size 
and shape of commercial note; and probably the most convenient 
way to perform the second and third o^ratvotia \?. \ft ^v^^S\s.^ ^^rSv 


around so as to bring the right-hand edge next to the body, and then 
proceed the same as for that kind of paper. 

Seco7id Way. — If the letter is to be enclosed in an 
official envelope, it must be folded thus : — 

1. Turn the bottom up so as to form a lap about one- 
third the length of the sheet ; 

2. Fold the top down over it. 

Note 1. The folds may be pressed down by tlie thumb or fingers, 
if they are perfectly clean and free from moisture ; but the best way 
is to use an ivory or pearl paper-knife for this purpose. The folds 
should be pressed down flat enough to give the letter a snug, neat 
appearance, but not close enough to crack the paper, so that it will 
tear on being opened. 

Note 2. Great care should be taken to have the edges of the 
letter, when folded, exactly even. The best way to secure this result 
18 this : when you turn a fold, make the left edge of it exactly even 
with the ed^e of the under part, then hold a finger of your left hand 
firmly on the loose or free corner on that edge, and press down the 
fold with the thumb or paper-knife, bearing gently outward; that is, 
away from the finger. The stifier the paper, the more difficult to 
fold. Indeed very thick j)aper is not suitable for letters. The paper 
should be of medium thickness, but of very fine quality. 

The Insertion of the Letter.— There is a right way 
and a wrong way of doing even so simple a thing as 
this, and, as is usually the case, the right way is the 
easier. It is this : — 

Take the envelope in the left hand, back up, and opening 
toward the right; then take up the folded letter with the 
other linnd, and Insert it, putting in the last folded edge first,* 
If you put it in the other way, the corners will be apt to 

* This direction does not, of course, apply to note-paper folded io 
the third way. In that case the folded side is first inserted. 


The letter should be inserted in such a manner that 
when taken out in the usual way and unfolded, it will 
be right end up. 


(This exercise may be omitted if the teacher thinks it unne\»essary.) 

1. Let each pupil fold, in the presence of the teacher, 
a sheet (or half-sheet) of note-paper, in each of the 
first three ways. 

2. Let each fold a sheet (or half-sheet) of letter- 
paper in each of the two ways described above. 

3. Let each folded sheet be inserted in an envelope. 

SECTION VII.— The Supersoription. 

1. PaRT8. 


r Name and Title. 

r Post Office. 



2. PosiTioK AND Arrangement. 

3. Legibility. 

4. CoNVESiEKCES. I addressed Envelopes 

( Special-request Envelopes. 

5. Punctuation. 

The Superscription, or Outside Address, is the ad- 
(Ire-^s that is put upon the envelope. 

Parts. — The Superscription consists of the Name and 
Title of the person who is expected to receive the 
letter, and his Residence, or post-office address. 

Namfie and Title. — These being the same that are 
given in the inside address, but little need be added 


to what is said in Section III. (See " Address," page 
26 ; also the same subject, page 48.) But let it be 
borne in mind that what in the inside is merely conve- 
nient and important, is here indispensable. 

Be sure to put the right name on the envelope. 
Very ludicrous and awkward misunderstandings have 
sometimes occurred on account of sending a letter tc» 
the wrong person. 

To avoid such a mistake, it is better, when we write several letters, 
at the same sitting, to enclose and address each letter as soon as 

As stated elsewhere (page 26), some title should be 
used with the name of the person addressed, because 
politeness requires it. But there is another reason for 
it ; namely, that the title often aids in identifying the 
person. There may be two or more persons of the 
same name in the same place, and the title may be the 
only means of knowing, from the envelope aloQe, for 
which person the letter is intended. 

If the person addressed is acting in an official ca- 
pacity, the designation of his office must be given, in 
addition to his customary title ; as, " Thos. A. Scott, Esq., 
Ftps, of the Pa. R. R. Co!' 

Official etiquette prescribes that in writing to the 
President of the United States, the words "To the 
President" be substituted on the envelope for the cus- 
tomary name and title ; thus : — 

To the President, 

E.vecrUive Mansion, 



Referekce. — For proper titles and styles of address to be used 
in writing to persons holding official positions in church or state, see 
Part III., pages 216, 223. 

Residence. — Tliis consists of the name of the posi- 
ofjice'^ nearest the person written to, and the county ^t\(\ 
state in which it is situated. If the person lives in a 
large city, the number and street should be given, but 
the county may be omitted. If the city is very large, 
both county and state may be omitted. 

In writing to the city of New York, for example, it would be 
entirely superfluous to add the name of the state. At the same time, 
when there is doubt, it is better to err on the safe side — better to put 
too much on the envelope than too little. (See remarks on " Resi- 
dence," page 27.) 

Many letters go wrong because the name of the post- 
office is not correctly written. For example, it hap- 
pens that there is a Millersville in Lancaster county, 
Pa., a Millershurg in Dauphin county, and a Millers- 
town in Perry county ; and as these names are nearly 
alike and mean the same, one is often written for the 
other. If the county is given, the letters reach their 
destination ; if not, tbey go to the Dead Letter Office. 

Position and Arrangement.— The writing on the en- 
velope should be in straight lines, parallel with the 
upperf and lower edges. 

* The name of the post-office is not always the same as that of the 
place in which it is situated. Thus, the name of the post-office at 
Waynesburg. Chester co., Penn., is Honeybrook. Therefore b« sure 
to give, in all cases, the name of the post-office. 

■j- The upper edge is the open one. Have that edge Jrom you 
when you direct the letter, otherwise the direction will be upside 


Avoid the foolish affectation of writing diagonally 
across the corner. The watered lines of the envelope 
sometimes run in that direction, but they are not 
intended to be written upon. 

Do not ruh the ert-velope. Black lines look worse 
than crooked writing, and marks made with a pin oi 
other sharp-pointed instrument are still worse. If you 
cannot write straight without lines, draw very faint 
lines with a soft pencil, and afterwards erase them ; or, 
better still, slip a heavily ruled piece of paper or card- 
board into the envelope, so that the lines will show 
through. Such a piece may be kept on hand for that 

The name should be a trifle below the middle of the 
envelope, and should begin near the left edge — some- 
times close to the edge, sometimes one or two inches 
from it, according to circumstan(ies ; and the other 
parts should be written at equal distances under it, 
each a little farther to the right, so that the last part 
(city or state) shall come near the lower right-hand 

If the person addressed lives in the country, the 

proper order is, — 

Name and Title, 



If the person lives in a city, the order is,— 

Name and Title, 

Number and Street, 



Sometimes it is desirable to address a letter to one 
person in care of another. When this is done, the 
words " Care of," etc., form the second line ; thus : — 

Miss Annabel Lee, 
Oa/re of Edgar A. Poe, Esq., 

In writing to the Governor of a state, the term *' Hiu 
Excellency " is used, and forms a line by itself, above 
the name ; thus : — 

-His .Excellency, 

Oovemor John A, Andrew, 

When a person's official designation is given in fall, 
it forms the next line below the name ; thus : — 

Roberts Vaux, Esq., 

Pres. of the Board of Education, 

' Note. — Lately some have maintained that the items of the 
superscription should be given in the inverse order, thus : — 

Pennsylvania, • 
Wayne Co., 


Wm. M, Dimmick, Esq. 

It is claimed that this is the order in which items are read 
by post-masters. In reply to this it may be stated, that what- 
ever would be gained by this arrangement at the office of 
niaihng, would be lost at the office of delivery. Both the 
post-master and the carrier at the latter would be subjected to 
great inconvenience. 


Each part of the superscription (as in the following 
models) should stand alone^ forming a line hy itself 
and the parts should be so arranged that a line drawn 
from the initial letter of the first to that of the last 
will pass through the initials of the others. 

To avoid crowding, however, the name of the county 
may be written in the lower left-hand corner, as in 
Model 2. Sometimes the number of the post-ofiice 
box is written in that corner ; but it may be written 
next to the name, taking the place of the door-number 
and street. 

Le^bility.— The superscription should be plainly and 
legibly written, especially the name^ of the post-office 
and the state. If the name of the state is short, write 
it in full ; and if abbreviations are used, take care to 
form the letters correctly. Pa. and Va., Penn. and 
Tenn., N. Y. and N. J. are particularly liable to be 
confounded. Hundreds of letters are sent to Trenton, 
N. Y., that were intended for Trenton, N. J., and vice 

Often letters are missent on account of sheer care- 
lessness on the part of the writer. Of the three or 
four million letters that go to the Dead Letter Office 
every year, about seventy thousand are not properly 
directed, and between three and four thousand have no 
direction whatever ! 

Conyeniences. — Safety and rapidity of correspondence 
may be promoted by the use (1.) of Addressed JSn- 
velopes, which prevent the misdirection of replies; 
and (2.) of ^jpedal- Request Envelopes^ which secure 


the prompt return of the writer's own letters, in case 
of their non-delivery. 

Addressed Envelopes. — By an Addrcsped Envelope is meant 
an envelope on which is printed or written the writer's own 
address. One of these may be enclosed in every business letter 
to which a reply is expected. If a person asks a reply for his 
own exclusive benefit, he should put a stamp on the enclosed 

Special- Request Envelopes. — These are envelopes on which 
are printed, in the upper left-hand corner, the address of the 
sender, with a request to return if not called for in a certain 
time. They may be obtained (stamped) of the Post Office 
Department, through any post-master, without extra charge 
for printing. If the address is given without a request to 
return, it is understood as an implied request, and the letter 
will be returned if not called for in thirty days. The special 
request may be either printed or written. 

The advantage of using such envelopes is, that letters en- 
closed in them are not sent to the Dead-Letter Office, in case 
of non-delivery ; but are returned directly to the writers, thus 
frequently preventing great uncertainty, embarrassment, and 
loss. (For the form of a special request, see Model 2, 
page 64.) 

Punctnation.— First, put a period after every abbre- 
viation, and after the last word. Second, put a comma 
after each item (that is, each line, if properly written), 
except the last. If a title is added to the name, put a 
comma between the name and title ; if two titles are 
added, put a comma between them. (Notice carefully 
the punctuation of the following models.) 

Capitals. — Begin all important words and all abbreviations with 
capital letters. In ordiiary superscriptions every word is capital* 
iied. (Notice the capitalization of the models.) 




Model 1. 

G//"v^^ G^^^^2^ 





When the name of the county is necessary, it may be written in 
the regular place (see page 60), or as in Model 3. When a letter is 
sent by a friend, the name of the bearer is written in the lower left- 
hand corner. 

Model 2* — Speeial-Beqtiest Business Envelope. 

If not called f6r In 10 days, return to 
JOHN DOE & Co.. 


Washington, D. G. 



'U^'k/^ O^ 




'4.€i'n'ei.€- W'O.. 





Direction. — Envelopes may be used, but it will be more con- 
venient to draw on a sheet of paper, figures of the proper size and 
shape, and write the superscriptions in them. The figures may be 
drawn by laying an envelope down and marking around it. Use un- 
ruled paper, or draw the figures so that the writing may be across 
the lines, not on them. 

1. Copy the models on the preceding page. 

2. Address an envelope to some absent friend. 

3^. Address an envelope to the President of the United States. 

4. Address an envelope to the Governor of your state. 

5. Address an envelope to the State Superintendent, County 
Superintendent, or some other leading educator. 

6. Address an envelope to J. E. Caldwell & Company, who 
carry on business at 902 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Be sure that you affix the proper stamp to every letter be- 
fore you mail it. A letter will not be forwarded unless it is 
prepaid at least one full rate, which is three cents.* 

Position. — The stamp should be placed on the upper 
right-hand comer of the face of the envelope, at about an 
eighth of an inch from the end and half as far from the top. 
It does not look well close to the edge. And it should be 
put on right-end up, and with the edges of the stamp par- 
allel with those of the envelope. Putting on a stamp upside 
down or awry indicates carelessness, and is disrespectful to 
the person addressed. 

Amonnt. — Be sure that the stamp is sufficient. If you 
are in doubt, put on an extra stamp. A thjee-cent stamp 
is sufficient for two sheets of ordinary note-paper, or one 
sheet of letter-paper.* 

* Two eentt after July 1, 1885. Tot t&lw ot v^\»i%%« ^* ^.^a. 

a* • 



Type-writer Correspondence.* 

DuEiNG the last few years the type-writing machine hat 
been much used in correspondence, especially by business and 
professional men. Letters may be written in this mannei 
much more rapidly and easily than with the pen; and if 
proper attention be paid to the position and arrangement of 
their several parts, letters so written are very neat and leg- 
ible. Most of the instructions given in the preceding pages 
of this work apply to type-written as well as to pen-written 
letters ; but, owing to the greater condensation of the former 
and to certain mechanical necessities, it is necessary to give a 
few special directions for this kind of correspondence. 

Heading:, — The experienced operator can readily calculate, 
from the number of words in the heading of a letter, where it 
should begin, and how the lines (if more than one, as is rarely 
the case) should be arranged. For type-written letters, printed 
letter-heads are generally used, with a blank for the date. 
These letter-heads are generally of the usual size of letter- 
paper, and for the note size are printed across the side instead 
of the end of the paper, so that the paper fills the whole of 
the printing-scale on the type-writer. The size of paper for 
letter-heads is usually eight by eleven inches ; for note-heads, 
eight by five and a half inches, 

Introdnction. — In the address (see p. 25), the name should 
begin at printing-space 1 on the type-writer, two line-spaces 
below the line of the heading, the name and title constituting 
one line. The residence, or direction, should begin at space 5, 
one line below the name, and should all be included in one 

* These valuable suggestions were kindly furnished by Messrs. Brown and Hol- 
land, Principals of the Brown k Holland Practical Bcliool of Sliort-hand and Typ«» 
WrltiDg, CbletLgo, III. 


line if not too long. The Bolutation should begin at space 10, 
one line bolow the residence. This gives the three lines of the 
introduction a uniform slope from left to right, as directed for 
pen-written letters. If the introduction consists of four lines^ 
the fourth line should begin at space 5, or under the first letter 
of the second line. 

Paragraphs* — The first paragraph of the letter should be- 
gin at the printing-space immediately following the salutation, 
and one line below it. It may begin, however, on the same 
line as the salutation, in which case a dash (which is two hy- 
phens on the type-writer) should separate it from the saluta- 
tion. Each new paragraph after the first should begin at 
space 5. If narrow paper is used, the lines running the nar- 
row way of the paper, the lines of the introduction may begin 
at spaces 1, 3, and 6, instead of 1, 5, and 10, and the para- 
graphs may begin at space 3. 

Conclnsion. — In closing a letter always begin the compli- 
mentxirii close (see p. 44) at printing-space 20, no matter at 
what point the letter ends ; and if there is more than one line 
in the close, use the same relative spacing as in the introduc- 
tion. The signature, if written with the type-writer, should 
fill the right-hand portion of the line next below the compli- 
mentary close, 

Pnnctiiation. — The punctuation should be the same in 
type-writing as in long-hand, except that when a period and 
a comma properly follow an abbreviation, the comma may be 
omitted, for a mechanical reason. After a comma no printing- 
Hpace should be left in type-writing; but after a semicolon, 
colon, or exclamation, a space should be left, as these points 
nearly fill the printing-space, and the omission of a space 
would give the writing a crowded appearance. After a 
period at the close of a sentence leave four spaces. 

Accuracy. — In type-writing especial care should be taken 
to avoid incorrect spelling and bad punctuation, as such errors 
are more conspicuous in print tYiaii \u ox^vclw:^ ^tvN-\\\%. 


Form of Social Letter. 

^^il^^ ^C^Ct/tA4/yi^ d4^d/ue4,^ 


Form of Business Letter. 

0^€w O^^^e^td^ cJ^€KUi.^ . 


^'aL44^ed^yayn^/€d^i^ ^^€-c4^e^<idyu,. 


The Rhetoric of Letters. 



1. Qenebal Pbhtcifles. 

2. Special Applications. 

Definition. — The Rhetoric of Letters is the art of 
expressing thought and feeling in letters with clear- 
ness, force, and elegance. 

Remark. — For conveDience we divide the present chapter into 
two sections. In the first, we shall consider the principles of rhetorio 
that apply to letters in general ; in the second, those that applj to 
particular kinds of letters. 

SECTION I.— General Pbinoiplbb. 


( 1. Ikvbntion. 
2. ExFBEssioir. ^ 

^ Orthography, 

The general principles applicable to tlie composition 
of letters will be discussed under two heads : 1. Inven- 
tion; 2. Expression. 




Invention is the action of the mind that precedes 
writing. In all kinds of composition, there are two 
things necessary : first, to have something to say ; second, 
to say it. Invention is finding something to say. It is 
the most difficult part of composition, as it is a purely 
intellectual process, requiring originality, talent, judg- 
ment, and information; while expression is to some 
extent a matter of mechanical detail, and subject to 
rules that can be easily understood and applied. A 
person can write out in a few weeks or months a work 
the invention of which required the thought and labor 
of many years. Yet both parts of composition are 
equally essential. It is certainly a noble thing to have 
great thoughts, but without the power of expressing 
them the finest sentiments are unavailable. 

Invention includes two operations : (1.) The collec- 
tion of materials; and (2.) their proper and orderly 

In the composition of letters, the process of invention 
is simpler and easier than in most kinds of writing. 
Except in a letter of information, but little preparation 
is necessary ; and yet it is proper in every case to think 
over beforehand what you want to say, so that no im- 
portant thought or fact may be omitted, or tacked on 
to the end as an afterthought or postscript. Having 
done this, the mind should be given a pretty free rein, 
and be allowed to run along as easily and naturally as 
possible, glancing aside here and there to follow the 
butterfly flights of fancy, or pausing in shady nooks of 
sentiment and reflection. But in letters of great 


importance, on public or private business, we should 
not only think over beforehand the subjects to be at- 
tended to, but should make a memorandum of them, 
and arrange them in the proper order of presentation. 
This will be found to be a more methodical, safe, and 
convenient way than to trust to the memory alone. 
In an answer, the proper order is generally deter- 
mined by the original letter. In fact it may be 
stated as a general rule, that the reply should corre- 
spond in length, subjects, arrangement, and style, with 
the letter that calls it forth. This, however, does not 
exclude the presentation of new subjects. Almost 
every answer is something more than an answer. (See 
Answers, page 85.) 


Expression as here used is the presentation of 
thoughts in writing. It embraces the following sub- 
jects : Orthography, Diction, Construction, Punctua- 
tion, and Style. 

Orthography treats of letters — the elements of written word«, 
Diction treats of words — the elements of sentences; Constructio. i 
treats of sentences — the elements of discourse; Punctuation treats 
of the division of discourse into its various grammatical elements: 
and Style treats of the special properties of discourse, and the means 
by which it is made to convey the moods and emotions of one mind 
to another. 

Orthography is generally treated of as a separate branch, or as 
belonging to grammar ; but in the present work it is more conyenient 
and appropriate to regard it as a part of rhetoric. 



Orthography includes Spelling and the Use of 

Spelling. 1. Importance, — Thomas Jeflferson, in one 
of his almirable letters to his daughter Martha, 
says : — 

*' Take care that you never spell a word wrong. Always, 
before you write a word, consider how it is spelt, and if you 
do not remember it, turn to a dictionary. It produces great 
praise to a lady [or gentleman] to spell well." 

And Lord Chesterfield, a noted authority in the 
polite world, writes to his son as follows : — 

" I must tell you that orthography, in -the true sense of the 
word, is so absolutely necessary for a man of letters, or a gen- 
tleman, that one false spelling may fix ridicule upon him for 
the rest of his life ; and I know a man of quality who never 
recovered [from] the ridicule of having spellfed wholesome 
without the w'' 

But it needs not the authority of Jefierson or Ches- 
terfield to convince any one of the importance of cor- 
rect spelling. Not long since a young man of our 
acquaintance was refused a desirable situation because 
in his letter of application he wrote wether for whether; 
and such cases are of frequent occurrence. There are 
few persons of fine culture who do not know from 
experience whaf a chill of disappointment or disgust^ 
is produced by the receipt of a badly-spelled and 
ridiculous letter from one who has the appearance and 
pretensions of a refined gentleman or lady. Such'a 
letter is no discredit to a person who has erv.\Q^^"i xLv^ 


educational advantages ; but to one who bears a semi- 
nary, normal-school, or college diploma it is nothing 
less than a disgrace. 

It is claimed by some, to excuse their own deficiency, 
that spelling, like poesy, is a natural gift. This is truG 
only to the extent that some learn it more readily than 
others. It may be that some are so constituted that 
they can never become good spellers. But even this 
defect does not excuse them for sending a badly-spelled 
letter. Let them, as Jeflferson advises, consider how 
every word is spelt, and if they do not remember it 
with certainty, let them turn to a dictionary. In 
writing an important letter, especially to a stranger, it 
would be better to consult the dictionary for every 
word, than run the risk of misspelling a single one. 

How Learned. — ^We learn words as we do faces — ^by 
their looks. Those that are frequently met with in 
reading and writing become, as it were, photographed 
upon the memory; and spelling is in most cases a 
mere description of this mental picture as we see it. 
Knowing how these words should look on paper, we 
readily notice when they are misspelled. If, therefore, 
we would become good spellers, we must read much 
and write much. There is no better exercise, not only 
in spelling, but also in capitals, punctuation, and gram- 
mar, than copying extracts from correctly-printed 
books. And if there are words that we especially wish 
to impress upon the memory, we should write them 
over and over — fifty or a hundred times, if necessary — 
until their forms are as familiar to us as are the fea- 
tures of our intimate friends. ^ Close and careful atten- 


tion, however, in this as in every other process of 
education, is essential to our success. 

Common Words. — Most of the mistakes in spelling 
are in the use of simple, common words ; such as untill 
for until, to for too, of for off, there for their, loose for 
hse, except for accept, wile for while, wiie for white, 
pleas for please, respectively for respectfully, proffessor 
or proff, for professor or prof. These are for the most 
part errors of carelessness rather than ignorance, and 
the remedy is greater watchfulness and deliberation. 

Rules. — There are other mistakes that might |be 
avoided by attention to a few simple rules. The most 
important of these rules relate to the formation of 
derivatives by the addition of a suffix — 

1. To words ending in silent e, 

2. To words ending in y. 

3. To words ending in a single consonant. 

In the first class of derivatives we find such mistakes 
as moveing for moving, loveable for lovable, changable 
for changeable. In the second class, such as 7nercyful 
for merciful, m/mies for moneys. In the third, such as 
Tuning for running, comm/iied for committed, regreted 
for regretted; or benefitted for benefited, profitted for 

Many mistakes are made, also, in the use of words 
containing ei or ie; for example, recieve for receive, 
beleive for believe, acheive for achieve, greive for grieve, 
etc. These may be avoided by remembering that ei is 
used after a letter having the sound of s, and ie ia 



other cases. [This rule and the others referred to 
above may be found on pages 171 — 174 of this work.] 

Numerals, — Arithmetical figures should not be used 
in letters, except in writing dates or very large num- 
bers. For example, ** He worked 5 days for $10,'* is 
not allowable ; it should be, ** He worked five days for 
ten dollars." It is proper, however, to write, " He 
sold his faim, May 5, 1875, for $100,000" (or " 100,000 
dollars"). In business letters, numbers that are written 
in words are also expressed, parenthetically, in figures ; 
as, ** Enclosed find my check for five thousand dollars 

Abbreviations. — Abbreviations should be used very 
sparingly, especially in social letters ; and none are 
allowable anywhere,, except such as are sanctioned by 
custom. [A list of abbreviations may be found in 
Part III. of this book, page 242.] 

Capitals.— A ympj common faiflt, in letters as well as 
every other kind of composition, is the improper use 
or omission of capital letters. In some cases we find 
too many capitals, especially in the letters of those 
who like to display their skill in penmanship ; but it 
is much more frequent to find nearly all capitals dis- 
carded. It is not by any means rare to find (probably 
owing to the excessive modesty of the writer !) a small 
letter (i) used for the personal pronoun I. Persona 
liable to such mistakes should study diligently the 
rules on the subject (see Rules for Capitals, page 175), 
and then carefully apply them. Directions for capital- 
izing the heading, introduction, conclusion, and super- 


Bcription, are given in the sections treating of these 

An excellent way to learn the correct iise of capitals 
is to observe how they are used in the best books and 
papers. ' 


A man's Diction is his choice and use of words. It 
should have three qualities, — Purity, Propriety, and 
Precision. Purity is the use of words that are good 
English ; Propriety is the use of words in their proper 
meaning ; Precision is the use of words, that express 
the exact meaning— no more and no less. For a full 
discussion of these properties the reader is referred to 
works on rhetoric. 

The diction of letters is not so stately as that of 
books : it is that used in good conversation. The fol- 
lowing are a few of the directions to be observed : — 

Foreign Words.— Indulge sparingly, if at all, in the 
use of foreign words and phrases. They are charac- 
teristic, not of the scholar, but of the smatterer. 

Slang Words. — Avoid, slang words and phrases, such 
as " too thin," " won't wash," " over the left," " you 
bet," etc. Young people are apt to pick them up in 
the street and elsewhere and use them unconsciously. 
In such cases they indicate simply a want of taste ; 
but in most cases they mark the man or woman of low 
associations and vulgar ideas. 

Simple Words. — As in our talk, so in our letters, we 
should not use too many " dictionary -^orcda" \ "^kssi^Ss^ 




long Latinized words. They give our language a 
pedantic air, and make it cold and formal. We should 
give preference to the " home words" of the language — 
the words used in the family and in the best standards 
of English. Love, for example, is preferable to affec* 
tion; motherly y to maternal; see, to perceive; tired, to 
faiigued; go, to depart; come, to arrive; have, to 
possess; do, to perform; begin, to commence; Sun- 
day, to Sabbath ; pray, to supplicate or implore, — and 
so on to almost any extent. 


By Construction we mean sentence-building. The 
chief things to be aimed at in this, are Grammatical 
Accuracy and Clearness. Unity, strength, and har- 
mony, so essential in essays and orations, are in letters 
of minor importance. 

Grammatical Accuracy.— Persons are generally un- 
able, in the necessary rapidity of correspondence, to 
prune and dress their sentences as in other kinds of 
composition, hence they cannot be held to a strict com- 
pliance with all the rules of rhetoric ; but nothing will 
excuse a violation of the ordinary rules of grammar. 
8uch expressions as "he done'' for "he did,'' "he come'* 
for "he came,'' "I seen" for "I saw," "he laid in bed'* 
for "he lay in bed," "he set down" for "he sat down," 
^^knowed" for '* knew," ''blowed" for ^^blew," "you 
was" for " you were," etc., etc., are intolerable, and fix 
upon the writer the stamp of illiteracy. 


Clearness.— A sentence that is not clear is eithei 
obscure or ambiguous. 

Use of Pronouns. — Ambiguity often arises from the 
unskilful or careless use of pronouns. In the sentence, 
" John told William that his book was in his room,' 
for example, it is impossible to tell whose book or 
whose room is meant. The fault may be removed by 
reporting the speech in the first person ; as, ** John said 
to William, Your book is in my room;" or by repeat- 
ing the noiin parenthetically after the pronoun; as, 
** John told William that his (William's) book wa^ in 
his (John's) room." The latter construction is awk- 
ward, but even awkwardness is preferable to want of 

Bad Arrangement. — Ambiguity or obscurity is often 
caused by a misplacing of words, phrases, or clauses. 
For example, the sentence, " I only saw two boys," is 
rendered ambiguous by fhe wrong position of " only." 
The meaning may be, "I only saw two boys" — did 
not hear them, or speak to them ; or, ** I saw only two 
boys" — no others. 

Again, in the sentence, " I saw an old woman darn- 
ing stockings with a Roman nose," a ridiculous am- 
biguity is produced by the misplacing of the phraae 
" with a Roman nose " : it should be placed close tc 
the word woman^ which it limits. In the sentence, 
" The figs were in small wooden boxes which we ate," 
the same efiect is produced by placing the clause 
"which we ate" at a distance from its proper ante- 


The rule in all such cases is, Place all modifying 
adjuncts as near as possible to the words which they 

Above all, have a clear conception of what you want 
to say. " Clear thinking," says Lowell, " makes clear 
writing '* ; and this, in most cases, is true. Muddy 
sentences indicate a muddy brain. A frank, earnest 
man, whose head and heart are full of his subject, will 
rarely fail to make himself clearly understood. 

Length of Sentences. — Short sentences are easier to 
write and easier to read than long ones, and are there- 
fore more suitable for correspondence. It is a common 
fault, especially in young people, to run several sen- 
tences together ; or, in other words, to crowd several 
disconnected things into one long, loose-jointed, un- 
gainly sentence. For example, a boy at school writing 
home to his mother would be likely to say : — 

Dear Mother.— I arrived here late last night, and I am much 
pleased with the place and the people, and to-morrow I shall be 
classed and shall begin my studies, and I want you to write to 
me often, for I know I shall be very lonely until I get well ac- 
quainted," etc. 

In this there are four distinct statements, each 
requiring a separate sentence. It should be expressed 
thus : — 

Dear Mother, — I arrived here late last night. I am much pleased 
with the place and the people. To-morrow I shall be classed, and 
shall begin my studies. I want you to write t-o me often ; for I know 
I shall be very lonely until I get well acquainted." 

A very useful rule to bear in mind is this : Express 
every distinct thought or fact in a distinct sentence; 
and be very sparing in the use of and's and but' a. 



The proper punctuation of the heading, introduc- 
tion, conclusion, and superscription has been given in 
Chapter II. : the body of the letter is subject to the 
same rules of punctuation that apply to other kinds of 

Neglect of It.— Punctuation, though a valuable art, 
and easily acquired, is neglected by many letter- 
writers, much to the detriment of their letters and 
the vexation of their correspondents. With some, 
especially with business men, it seems to be a foolish 
affectation to despise points, as something beneath 
their notice. Others omit to punctuate through igno- 
rance or carelessness ; or, if they make any attempt at 
pointing, throw in a dash here and there, making it do 
duty for all the other points. We have seen beauti- 
fully written letters, some of them from graduates and 
professors, without a single point in them from begin- 
ning to end. 

Importaiice.-^Punctuation is very closely connected 
with the construction of sentences ; so closely, indeed, 
that without it a clear expression of thought in writing 
is next to impossible. Its importance may be illus- 
trated by the following example : — 

" The party consisted of Mr. Smith a clergyman his son a 
lawyer Mr. Brown a Londoner his wife and a little child." 

Here it is impossible to tell how many persons were 
in the party, or how they were related. Let us insert 
a few commas and note the effect *. — 


" The party consisted of Mr. Smith, a clergyman, his son, a 
lawyer, Mr. Brown, a Londoner, his wife, and a little child." 

This makes the party consist of eight persons. Now 
let us substitute semicolons for some of the commas : — 

"The party consisted of Mr. Smith, a clergyman; his son, 
a lawyer; Mr. Brown, a Londoner; his wife, and a little 

Mr. Smith is now a clergyman, his son is a lawyer, 
Mr. Brown is a Londoner, and the number of the party 
is reduced to five! Various other changes may be made 
in the same way. [Let the reader see how many 
meanings he can make the sentence express.] 

Hundreds of similar illustrations could be given, 
showing conclusively that in letters, as well as in every 
other kind of written composition, a knowledge of the 
use of points is absolutely necessary to the clear ex- 
pression of thought. 

Puirctuation is too important to be disposed of in a 
few sentences : we shall therefore make it the subject 
of a distinct treatise, (see Part II., page 177) ; thus 
giving it greater prominence, and rendering it more 
readily accessible to persons who wish to make it a 
special object of study. 

A Saggcstion.— :We will suggest, however, before pass- 
ing to the next topic, that an excellent way to improve 
in this . art is to notice carefully the points used in 
books and newspapers, endeavoring at the same time 
to ascertain why they are used as they are. Copying 
extracts, as already suggested, also conduces to the 
same end. 

STYLE. 83 


Letters, as a class, are distinguished from othei 
kinds of composition by an easy, natural mode of 
expieoaicn — ^half colloquial, half literary — which we 
designate as the epistolary style. But in this apparent 
unity there is infinite variety; beneath this general 
style, we find a large number of special styles. In 
fact, every kind of letter — we may almost say every 
letter — ^has a style of its own. Some of these special 
styles will be examined and illustrated in a separate 
division of this chapter (Section II., page 91). All 
that we shall attempt to do in this place is to lay down 
a few general principles relating to the subject, leaving 
their application to particular cases to the taste and 
judgment of the writer. 

Adaptatfon.— The style of a letter should be adapted 
to the person and the subject. To superiors it ^ould 
be respectful and deferential ; to inferiors, courteous ; 
to friends, familiar ; to relations, afiectionate ; to chil- 
dren, simple and playful : on important subjects it 
should be forcible and impressive ; on lighter subjects, 
easy and sprightly ; in condolence, tender and sympa- 
thetic; in congratulation, lively and joyous. It would 
be absurd to write to a schoolboy in the stately phrases 
of an official letter; and equally absurd to use the 
iamiliar language of love and friendship in a commu- 
nication on business. 

Figures of Rhetoric.— Public and descriptive letters 
admit of such rhetorical ornament as is appropriate to 
the subject ; but in ordinary familiar Utt«t^ <3^^ ^^v^ 


£gare8 are allowable as woald naturally be used under 
like circumstances in conversation. In business letters 
no figures whatever should be used. The language 
should be plain, simple, direct. 

Bednndaucj. — Tautology, repetition, and all sorts of 
redundancy, should be avoided. Do not insult the 
intelligence of your friend by stringing out vapid 
nothings for the purpose of filling the sheet. 

*' Words are Uke leaves ; and where they most abound, 
Much froit of sense beneath is rarely found." 

The value of a composition is not always in propor- 
tion to its length. As elsewhere remarked, a good 
short letter is better than a poor long one. But while 
the language of a letter should not be too diflFiise, 
neither should it be too dry and abrupt. It should be 
easy, flowing, graceful; neither magnifying trifling 
things nor belittling great ones. 

Cnltiyation of Style.— Style, being simply the mode 
of expression, can be cultivated, like music, painting, 
or any other art. This may be done : 1. By the study 
of rhetoric ; 2. By judicious practice ; 3. By the care- 
ful and extensive reading of good letters. (See Litera- 
ure of Letters, page 121.) 

Plagriarism.— It is allowable to imitate an author's 
felicities of expression, and to adopt his sentiments; 
but it is base to copy his language as our own. Some 
persons, finding it difiScult to express their feelings on 
paper, resort to what are called ** Complete Letter- 
Writers" — ^books containing forms of letters for a va- 
riety of occasions. An instance is related of a young 

STYLE. 86 

mau who copied a letter of proposal from one of these 
books, and received in reply a note in these words: 
" You will find my answer on the next page." It was 
a polite refusal — and served him right. Discard all 
such "Letter- Writers," or if you use them, simply read 
the letters for the cultivation of your style and lan- 
guage. There are few of them, however, that can be 
recommended as models in any respect. 

ItaUcizingr* — Italicizing in writing is done by under- 
lining. Persons of ardent temperament are apt to 
indulge in this to excess. It is like over-seasoning, — 
it cloys the appetite and fails of its intended effect. If 
sentences are properly constructed, the reader will 
know where to place the emphasis without any such 
help. Italicizing should be resorted to only when a 
word is used simply as a word (as, advise is a verb), or 
belongs to a foreign language (as, au revoir, adieu), or 
is used in some peculiar manner (as, " I said, a * model 
school,' not a model schooV). 

Answers. — If a letter is not insulting, it should be 
answered ; if it is insulting, it should be either returned 
to the writer or treated with silent contempt. The 
former is the better way, as silence might invite a repe- 
tition of the offence. 

And letters that are to be answered should be an- 
swered promptly. Punctuality in this respect prevents 
misunderstandings and alienations, facilitates business, 
promotes good feeling, confirms friendships, and is in 
many ways advantageous to both parties to the corre- 


The answer should correspond somewhat, so far as it 
is an answer, in style, length, and arrangement, to th« 
letter that calls it forth. The answer to a short lettei 
is generally short ; to an affectionate letter, affection- 
ate; to a formal letter, formal. Of course there are 
many exceptions, but this is the general rule. 

HecapUulcUion. — The answer should generally begin 
with some reference to the letter to which it responds. 
Ill fact, the answer to a business letter should briefly 
recapitulate the points to be replied to; thus: "Your 
esteemed favor of the 12th inst., inquiring on what terms, 
etc., etc., was duly received. In reply," ete. Such a re- 
capitulation connects the letter with the one it answers, 
and makes it a history of the whole transaction. It 
derives additional importance from the fact that all 
letters to a business house are fil^d, and constitute an 
important record. 

Care of Letters. — Answered and unanswered letters 
should be kept separate, so that no mistakes may 
be made ; and it is well to keep answered letters — if 
they are kept — tied up m bundles, and properly 
assorted and endorsed.* 

Unclosing Stamp. — When you write requesting an 
answer exclusively for your own benefit and interest, 
be sure to enclose a stamp for return postage ; or, still 
better, a stamped and addressed envelope. 

Postscripts. — Postscripts are generally mere after- 
thoughts, and should generally be avoided. If, how- 

* Of course there are other ways of filing letters, that are morf 
suitable for per9>ns having a very large correspondence. 

STYLE, 87 

ever, new inftacniation is received after the letter is 
finished, it may very properly be added. Never send 
a message of compliment or affection in a postscript : 
it is a glaring impropriety to do so, as it is a confession 
that the matter is of so slight consequence as to have 
escaped the writer's mind. What in the body of the 
letter would be a compliment, may become a positive 
insult in the postscript. 

Be^nnin? and Endinp.-The most perplexing parts 
of a letter, to most persons, are the first and last sen- 
tences. In private letters, at least, the opening should 
be as free and natural as possible, by all means avoid- 
ing such set phrases as ** I take my pen in hand," etc. 
Whatever is uppermost in the mind should generally 
be said first. In business letters, especially official 
ones, however, there is more formality. A letter 
should generally close with some expression of compli- 
ment or affection. Sometimes this is confined to the 
" complimentary close," but generally it embraces also 
the last sentence or two. To show how easily and 
naturally the best letters begin and end, we append a 
number of examples :— 

Hannah More to Mr. Wilberforce. 

My dear Friend, — I was glad to receive, etc. # * • 
Adieu, my very dear friend. Do not forget to include in your 
prayiers not the least affectionate of ^our friends, -n- xtq*- 

Charles Dicktru to Lady Blemngton. 

Milan. Wednesday, Nov. 20, 1844. 

Appearances are aigairist nte. Don't believe them. I have written 

you in intention fifty letters, etc. * » * 

Charles Dickenr, 


Mary Lamb to Hiss Stoddart. 

My dearest Sarah, — I will just write a few hasty lines to sa> 

that Coleridge is setting off sooner than we expected, etc. * * « 

God bless you and send you all manner of comforts and happiness-s 

Your most affectionate friend, 

Mary Lamb 

{Note added by her brother Charles.) 
How do ? how do ? No time to write. S. T. C. going off in a 

«^' •"""? Ch. Lakb. 

ITie same to the same. 

My dear Sarah, — Do not be very angry that I have not written 
to you. I have promised your brother to be at your wedding, and 
that favor you must accept as an atonement for my offences. * * 

I come with a willing mind, bringing nothing with me but many 

wishes, and not a few hopes, and a very little fear— of happy years to 


I am, dear Sarah, 

Yours ever most affectionately, 

Mary Lamb. 

Mrs. Barbauld to Miss Taylor. 

^unbridge Wells, Aug. 7, 1804. 

I may call you dear Susan, may I not ? For I can love you, if not 

better, yet more familiarly and at my ease under that appellation 

than under the more formal one of Miss Taylor, etc. » » • 

That all your improvements may produce you pleasure, and all 

your pleasures tend to your improvement, is the wish of 

Your ever affectionate friend, 

Letitia Barbauld. 

Charles jDickens to Mr. Felton. 

Kegeht's Park, London, 2d March, 1843. 
My dear Felton, — I don't know where to begin, but plunge 
headlong with a terrible splash into this letter, on the chance of turn- 
ing up somewhere. — Hurrah ! up like a cork again, with the " North 
American Review " in my hand. * * » 

Faithfully always, my dear Felton, 

Charles Diceeits. 

STYLE. 89 

Thomas %Tefferwn tc his daughter Martha. 

Aix en Provence, March 28, 1787. 
I was happy, my dear Patsy, to receive, on my arrival here, youi 
letter informing me of your good health and occupation. * * 
• * * Continue to love me with all the warmth with which 
you are beloved by, my dear Patsy, 

Yours affectionately, 

Th. Jeffebsoit. 

Charles Lamb to P. O. Patmore. 

Dear Patmore, — Excuse my anxiety — but how is Dash?* (I 
should have asked if Mrs. Patmore kept her rules and was improving 
— but Dash came uppermost. The order of our thoughts should be 
the order of our writing.) Goes he muzzled, or aperto oref [And 
so on through pages of the most delightful drollery.] » » • 

Let us hear from you concerning Mrs. Patmore's regimen. I send 
my love in a to Dash. ^ j^^^^ 

Wm. Penn to his family on embarking for America. 

Mt dear Wife and Children, — My love, which neither sea nor 
land nor death itself can extinguish or lessen toward you, most en- 
dearedly visits you with eternal embraces, and will abide with you 
for ever, etc. » • * 

So farewell to my thrice dearly beloved wife and children. 

Yours, as God pleaseth, in that which no waters can quench, no 
time forget, nor distance wear away, but remains for ever. 

William Penn. 

WoRMiNGHURST. 4th of 6th mo., 1682. 

Deliberation. — We should never write a letter when 
strongly excited ; if we do, we shall almost certainly 
say things that we shall repent the next day. Persona 
have sometimes, in the heat of passion, written things 
that they would afterwards have given worlds, if pos* 

* A large, handsome dog. 


sible, to recall. This applies to the excitement of 
affection as well as to that of anger. A joong person 
will sometimes, under a temporary spell of fascination, 
write words that will commit him (or her) to a life of 
regret and wretchedness. 

If, when writing letters, we would keep before our 
minds the question, " How will this look a year or ten 
years hence ?" we would save ourselves from writing a 
great many foolish things. In cases of excitement we 
should consult some judicious friend, if there is one 
within reach ; if not, we should wait — sleep over the 
matter, as Webster did over his great speech. 

Copies. — It is advisable to keep copies of all import- 
ant letters, as a protection against possible misrepre- 
sentation, fraud, or malice. 

Tmthftilness. — Above all, in our letters as in every- 
thing else, we should be perfectly truthful, remember- 
ing that written words are sometimes more enduring 
than marble ; and that years hence, if foolish or false, 
they may cause our own cheeks or those of our friends 
to tingle with shame. 

Moderation. — Perfect truthfulness, as well as refined 
baste, demands moderation in the use of words. Ex- 
aggerated expressions, such as "perfectly splendid," 
" awful tired," etc., instead of strengthening the lan- 
guage, actually weaken it. " Splendid" means " shin- 
ing," and "awful" means "awe-inspiring"; how ab- 
surd, then, such expressions as " a splendid bath," "an 
awful cold " 1 The strongest and best word, in any 
case, is <he word which most perfectly fits the thought. 


SECTION II.— Special Applications. 


1. Style and Specimeits of 
Social Lettebs. 

2. Style and Specimens or 
Business Lettebs. 








Remark. — Having in the preceding part of this chapter laid down 
the principles of rhetoric applicable to letters in general, we propose 
to consider in the present section the application of these principles 
to particular kinds ot letters. The specimen letters printed under 
the several heads are designed merely to give an idea of the style 
appropriate in such cases ; not to supply the lack of originality on 
the part of writers. (See the remark on " Plagiarism," page 84.) 


The social letters of most frequent use are the fol- 
lowing : 1. Familiar Letters, under which we include 
Domestic, or Family Letters, and ordinary Letters of 
Friendship ; 2. Letters of Introduction ; 3. Letters of 
Congratulation ; 4. Letters of Condolence. 

* It will be noticed that in the printed specimens the body of the 
letter begins on the same line with the salutation. This arrangement 
is proper in print, but not in writing. In aU written letters, the 
parts sJiould be arranged in strict eonjormitp with the directions and 
models given in Chapter II. 


Familiar Letters. 

Snpreme Excellence. — The supreme excellence of n 
familiar letter is naturalness. Such a letter should be 
unstudied, free from affectation, and as nearly as poBsible 
like good conversation. And it should be perfectly 
characteristic of the writer, so that the recipient may 
leel when reading it, as if his friend were actually 
present and speaking. When you are about to write a 
letter to a friend, think what you would say to him if 
he were at that moment with you, and then write it. 
We all like talking letters — good talking, of course. 

Little Things. — Don't be afraid to write of little 
things. To one who loves us, nothing that concerns 
us is trivial or uninteresting.* Things that are worth 
talking about are worth writing about. When absent 
from home, we gloat over the simplest details, — what 
the baby says and does ; how our favorite horse or cat 
or dog or canary is getting along ; how the old familiar 
trees and vines and flowers look — when they blossom, 
how they grow, etc. ; anything and everything that 
calls up the picture of home with all its dear associa- 
tions, and makes us forget for the moment that we are 
scores or hundreds of miles away. 

Affection. — The best domestic letters are dictated by 
the heart rather than the head. A loving heart nat- 
urally imparts a glow to the written page, and this 
warmth is communicated, by the mysterious power 

* They are as dear to us from those we love, as they are tedious 
and disagreeable from others. — Madame de Sivigni. 


of words, to the heart of the reader. It is wrong 
to indulge in strained and artificial expressions of 
affection ; and it is equally wrong to suppress those 
that are prompted by genuine feeling. To a fond 
mother, an affectionate sister, a devoted wife, whose 
every breath is laden with a prayer for your safety 
and happiness, — a loving word is inexpressibly precious, 
filling the soul with sunshine, and making it for a time 
oblivious of the pain of separation. 

" Such " words " have power to quiet 
The restless pulse of care, 
And come like the benediction 
That follows after prayer." 

Specimen Letters. — To afford a practical illustration 
of the style appropriate for familiar letters, a few 
specimens are given below. We have not in all cases 
chosen such as we would, but such as we could. The 
best letters are too long for reproduction in these pages. 

1. Emily Chvhhuck {Fanny Forrester) to Mrs. Dr. Nott 

Utica Female Seminary, October, 1842. 

My deab M There it is again ! I cannot write " Miss 

Sheldon," and I am sure such a bashful body as I could not be 
expected to address so dignified a personage as Mrs. Nott. So 
what shall I do? I am very lonely just now, and feel in- 
clined to be somewhat sentimental ; for I have been up the 
hall, and found a certain corner room, looking — ^not desolate — 
oh, no ; it is wondrous cosy and comfortable — but as. though it 
otight to be desolate. Yet I will spare you all the things I 
could say, and turn to some other subject. % * * * 

T sits studying close by ; somebody is thumping Miss 

F.'s piano over our head tremendously ; M. B. is passing the 
door — there! the bell rings — study-hour is over; there is a 


general increase of sound in the house, and 1 know Ly the 
voices in the hall that many a door has been flnng open within 
the last half minute. How I wish — but no, there is no use in 
wishing ! I will go to bed and dream (I have few day -dreams 
now) of pleasant things, and wake in the morning and see every 
thing pleasant ; for this is a happy world, in spite of its per- 
plexities. Fine dreams to you too, both waking and sleeping; 
yet now and then intermingling may there come a little 
(though it were the least in the world) thought of • 

Your truly affectionate 


2. Ooethe*8 Mother {Frau Rath) to Bettme Brentano. 

Frankfort, May 12, 1808. 

Deab Bettine, — Thy letters give me joy, and Miss Betty, 
who recognizes them in the address, says, " Frau Bath, the 
postman brings you a pleasure." Don't however be too mad 
about my son ; everything must be done in order. The brown 
room is new-papered with the pattern which you chose ; the 
color blends peculiarly well with the morning twilight, which 
breaks over the Catharine-tower and enters into my room. 
Yesterday our town looked quite holiday-like, in the spotless 
light of the Alba. 

Except this, everything remains as it was. Be in no trouble 
about the footstool, for Betty suffers no one to sit upon it. 

Write much, even if it were every day. 

Thy affectionate friend, 

Elizabeth Goethe. 

3. John Quincy Ada/rm, when seven years old, to his Father 

Brain tree, October 13, 1774. 
Sib, — I have been trying ever since you went away, to learn 
;o write you a letter. I shall make poor work of it ; but, sir, 
mamma says you will accept my endeavors, and that my duty 
to you may be expressed in poor writing as well as good. I 
hope I grow a better boy, and that you will have no occasion 
to be ashamed of me when you return. Mr. Thaxter says 1 


learn my books well. He is a very good master. I read my 
books to mamma. We all long to see you. 

I am, sir, your dutiful son, 

John Quincy Adams. 

4. Thomas Jefferson to his daughter Martha. 

[We give the following letter, partly because of the excellence of its 
{<tyle, but chiefly because of the lofty precepts it inculcates. Mi 
Jefferson in his letters to his daughters always mingles instructio 
with affection ; always endeavors to inform the mind and build up 
the character. He directs their studies, encourages them to notic« 
the phenomena of nature, — the time that birds appear, flowers bloom, 
fruits ripen, etc. ; and urges to the practice of industry, economy, and 
all the domestic and social virtues. The italics are ours.] 

Toulon, April 7. 1787. 

My dear Patsy, — I received yesterday, at Marseilles, your 
letter of March 25th, and I received it with pleasure, because 
it announced to me that you were well. Experience learns 
[teaches] us to be always anxious about the health of those 
whom we love. * * * 

I have received letters which inform me that our dear Polly 
will certainly come to us this summer. When she arrives she 
will become a precious charge on your hands. The difference 
of your age, and your common loss of a mother, will put that 
office on you. Teach her above all things to he good, because 
without that we can neither be valued by others nor set any 
value on ourselves. Teach her to he always true; no vice is so 
mean as the want of truth, and at the same time so useless. 
Teach her never to be angry ; anger only serves to torment our- 
selves, to divert others, and to alienate their esteem. And 
teach her industry and application to useful pursuits. I will 
venture to assure you that, if you inculcate this in her mini, 
you will make her a happy being in herself, a most estimable 
friend to you, and precious to all the world. In teaching her 
these dispositions of mind, you will be more fixed in them 
yourself, and render yourself dear to all your acquaintances. 
Practice them, then, my dear, withovit <ife^"ft\Ti%. \^ «^^t ^^-^ 


find yourself in difficulty, and doubt how to extricate yourself 
do what 18 right, and you will find it the easiest way of getting 
out of the difficulty. Do it for the additional incitement of 
increasing the happiness of him who loves you infinitely, and 
who is, my dear Patsy, 

Yours affectionately, 

Th. Jefferson. 

5. Martha Jegenon to her Father, 

[Not in answer to the preceding letter, but to an earlier one.] 

My dear Papa, — I am very glad that the beginning of your 
voyage has been so pleasing, and I hope that the rest will be 
not less so, as it is a great consolation for me, being deprived 
of the pleasure of seeing you, to know that you are happy. I 
hope your resolution of returning in the end of April is always 
the same. 

I do not doubt but what Mr. Short has written you word 
that my sister sets ofif with Fulwar Skipwith in the month of 
May, and she will be here in July. Then indeed shall I be the 
happiest of mortals ; united to what I have the dearest in the 
world, nothing more will be requisite to render my happiness 

I am not so industrious as you or I would wish, but I hope 
that in taking pains I very soon shall be. I have already be- 
gun to study more. I have not heard any news of my harp- 
sichord ; it will be really very disagreeable if it is not here before 
your arrival. I am learning a very pretty thing now, but it 
is very hard. I have drawn several little flowers, all alone, 
that the master even has not seen ; indeed he advised me to 
draw as much alone as possible, for that is of more use than 
all I could do with him. I shall take up my Livy, as you de- 
sire it. I shall begin again, as I have lost the thread of the his- 
tory. As for the hysterics, you may be quiet on that head, as 
I am not lazy enough to fear them* 

There was a gentleman, a few days ago, that killed himself 


because lie thought that his wife did not love him. They had 
been married ten years. I believe that if every husband in 
Paris was to do as much, there would be nothing but widows 
left. [A nice bit of satire on French society.] * * * 

As for needlework, the only kind that I could learn here 
would be embroidery, indeed netting also ; but I could not do 
much of these in America, because of the impossibility of hav- 
ing proper silks ; however, they will not be totally useless. 

You say your expectations for me are high, yet not higher 
than I can attain. Then be assured, my dear papa, that you 
shall be satisfied in that, as well as in anything else that lies 
in my power ; for what I hold most precious is your satisfac- 
tion, indeed I should be miserable without it. You wrote me 
a long letter, as I asked you ; however, it would have been 
much more so without so wide a margin. Adieu, my dear papa. 
Be assured of the tenderest affection of 

Your loving daughter, 

M. JEFFEB805. 

Pakthemont, April 9, 1787. 

6. Lady Dvfferin to Miss Berry. 

[Lady Dufferin was the granddaughter of Richard Brinsley Sher- 
idan, and seems to have inherited his wit. We give below quotations 
from one of her witty, vivacious epistles, regretting that we cannot 
afford room for the whole of it.] 

Hampton Hall, Dorchester, 1846. 
Your kind little note followed me here, dear Miss Berry, 
which must account for my not having answered it sooner. 
As you guessed, I was obliged to follow my *' things** (as the 
maids always call their raiment) into the very jaws of the law. 
I think the Old Bailey is a charming place. We were intro- 
ducdd to a Live Lord Mayor, and I sat between two sheriflfe. 
The common sergeant talked to me familiarly, and I am not 
sure that the governor of Newgate did not call me " Nelly." 
As for the Rev. Mr. Carver (the ordinary), if the inherent 
vanity of my sex does not mislead me, I think I have made a 
deep impression there. Altogether, my Old Bailey TecoUft<i- 


tions are of the most })lea8ing and gratifying nature. It if 
trao that I have only got back three pairs and a half of stock- 
ings, one gown, and two shawls ; but that is bat a trifling con- 
sideration in studying the glorious institutions of our country. 
We were treated with the greatest respect, and — ham-sand- 
wiches ; and two magistrates handed us down to the carriage. 
For my part, I do not think we were in a criminal court, as 
the law was so uncommonly dvil. ♦ * * ♦ 

I find that the idea of personal jtroperty is a fascinating illu- 
sion, for our goods belong in fact to our country, and not to 
us ; and that the petticoats and stockings I have fondly imag- 
ined mine, are really the petticoats of Qreat Britain and Ire- 
land. I am now and then indulged with a distant glimpse of 
my most necessary garments in the hands of different police- 
men ; but '' in this stage of the proceedings " may do no more 
than wistfully recognize them. Even on such occasions, the 
words of Justice are, '• Policeman B, 26, produce your gowns." 
•• Letter A, 36, identify your lace." '• Letter C, tie up your 
stockings.*' All this is harrowing to the feelings, but one can- 
not have everything in this life. We have obtained justice^ 
and can easily wait for a change of linen. 

Hopes are held out to us, that at some vague period in the 
lapse of time, we may be allowed to wear out our raiment — at 
least so much of it as may have resisted the wear and tear of 
justice ; and my poor mother looks confidently forward to be- 
ipg restored to the bosom of her silver teapot. But I don*t 
^pow ! I begin to look upon all property with a philosophic 
pye pa upstable in its nature, and liable to all sorts of pawn- 
brokers ; moreover, the police and I have so long had my 
clpthjes ip common, that I shall never feel at home in them 
^gain. To a virtuous mind the idea that •* Inspector Dousett" 
jBxamiped ipto all one's hooks and eyes, tapes and buttons, etc., 
is iftexpriBBpibly painful. But I cannot pursue that view of 
the spbject. Let me hope, dear Miss Berry, that you feel 
f(pr us as wp really deserve, and that you wish me well ** thro* 
my clothes " on Monday next ! If I were sure you are at 


Richmond still, I might endeavor to return your kind visit* 
but at present our costumes are too light and our hearts too 
heavy for the empty forms and ceremonies of social intercourse. 
I hope, however, to see you ere very long, and with very kind 
remembrances to your sister, believe me, 

Yours very truly, 

Selina DUFFEBIir. 


Write a letter to an absent friend, in accordance with 
tlie foregoing suggestions. (See foot-note, page 91.) 

Letters of Introduction. 

Definition. — ^A Letter of Introduction is one by 
which a person introduces a friend or acquaintance to 
a friend who is absent. 

Letters of Introduction are of two kinds, — Social and Buaineis. 
We shall here confine our remarks to the former, leaving the latter 
to be treated of under the head of Business Letters. 

SasTgr^stions. — In the use of this kind of correspond- 
ence, the following suggestions will be found useful : — 

1. Be careful whxym you introduce. By introducing 
an improper person, you might do an irreparable injury 
to your absent friend. Never introduce socially any 
one with whom you would not be willing to have your 
mother, wife, or sister associate. 

2. Lettera of introduction should be short. They are 
often delivered in person, and it is embarrassing for a 
person to wait while a long letter is being read. 

3. Do not over-praise. You may use the warm lan- 
guage of friendship, but extravagant eulogy is as much 


out of place in a written as it would be in an oral in- 

4. Leave the letter unsealed. To prevent the bearei 
from reading it by fastening the envelope would be a 
breach of politeness, and might excite distrust and sus- 
picion. The bearer may, however, seal it before de- 

Saperscription. — The superscription is the same as 
if the letter were to be sent by mail, except that the 

words, " Introducing Mr. A B ," are written 

in the lower left-hand corner ; thus : — 

Introducing ^ 

Mr, WUliam Young. . ^^M^^- 

Stamp. — As the letter is not sent by mail, no stamp 
is required. 

Delivery. — The proper way to deliver a letter of in- 
troduction is to send it to the person who is to receive 
it, together with a card bearing the name and address 
of the person introduced. The former should then call 
on the latter and extend his hospitalities. In many 
cases the bearer presents the letter in person ; and cir- 


cumstances often render it proper and necessary to do 
80. Care should be taken, however, not to present it 
when its reception will be inconvenient and embar- 

Specimen Letters. — We give below four specimeM 
to illustrate the proper style to be used. 

Number One. 

Green Valley, Pa., May 1, 1876. 
Deab Sib, — I have the honor of introducing to your ac- 
quaintance Mr. William Worthy, whom I commend to your 
kind attentions. 

Very truly yours, i 

Jane Faithful. 
Mb. Thomas Good, Vlneland, N. J. 

Number Ttoo, 

Chicago, Sept. 25, 1875. 
My deab Sib, 

It gives me pleasure to introduce to you my 

much esteemed friend, Mr. W. Penn Johnson. Any attentions 

you may be able to show him will be gratefully acknowledged 

and cheerfully reciprocated by 

Your old friend, 

Abthub Pendennis. 
Mb. William Gbaham. 

Number Three. 

[The circumstance that occasions tb^ introduction may be stated, as 
iu the following :] 

Philadelphia, June 30, 1876. 
My deab Flobence, — This will be handed to you by Mrs. 
Jerome St. Clair, who will remain in your city a few days, on 
her way to Richmond. It gives me much pleasure to make you 
known to her ; for I am sure that the acquaintance of two friends 
who are so dear to me will enhance theha^^\\i«e.% oWi^'Oa.. fc^ssc^ 


attention that you may be able to pay to Mrs. St Clair daring 
her etay will add one more to my many reasons for being 

Your loving and fateful friend, 

Makt Bloom field. 
Miss Flobekce Hope, Baltimore, Md. 

Number Four. 

[Here is one in the off-hand, dashing style of a yonng collegian 
A letter of introduction should be as natural and original as any 
other. A set phraseology makes a letter stiff and lifeless.] 

Columbia College, Sept. 4, 1870. 

Deab Will, — Open your house and heart to my dear old 
chum, Tom Jones, who is waiting to stick this in his pocket. 
He is going to make a raid on your town in search of health, 
and 'I don't want you to kill him by dragging him up those 
mountains, as you did me last summer. I have given him 
such glowing accounts of my sister's cooking as to make me 
as hungry as a cannibal. 

Depending upon your brotherly love for my dear friend's 
kind reception, I am . 

Ever your affectionate brother, 


William Lse, Esq., Bedford, Pa. 


Compose, fold, and superscribe a letter of introduc- 
tion. (See foot-note, page 91.) 

Letters op Congratulation. 

Definition and Remarks. — A Letter of Congratula- 
tion is one written to a friend who has experienced 
8ome good fortune or great joy. 

Such a letter should of course be written in a lively, 
cheerful style, suited to the occasion, and should be 
free from all admixture of envy or foreboding. It 
ahould be a rose without a thorn. If there is any un- 


pleasant news to communicate, concerning yourself or 
any one else, or if you have any advice to give, leave 
it for a subsequent letter. 

Exaggerated expressions of joy have an air of in- 
sincerity, and should therefore be avoided. To sum 
np all, in a word, — -feel rights and write as y oil feel. 

Specimen Letters. — The following letters will illus- 
tiate our remarks : — 

1. Thomas J^erson to his Sister on her Marriage. — {Abridged.) 

Paris, July 12, 1788. 

My deab Sisteb, — My last letters from Virginia inform me 
of your marriage with Mr. Hastings Marks. I sincerely wish 
you joy and happiness in the new state into which you have 
entered. I have seen enough of Mr. Marks to form a very 
good opinion of him, and to believe that he will endeavor to 
render you happy. I am sure you will not be wanting on 
your part. You have seen enough of the diflferent conditions 
of life to know that it is neither wealth nor splendor, but tran- 
quillity and occupation, which give happiness. This truth I 
can confirm to you from larger observation and a greater scope 
of experience. 

I should wish to know where Mr. Marks proposes to settle 
and what line of life he will follow. In every situation I 
should wish to render him and you every service in my power, 
as you may be assured I shall ever feel myself warmly inter- 
ested in your happiness, and preserve for you that sincere love 
I have always borne you. My daughters remember you with 
equal affection, and will one of these days tender it to you in 
person. They join me in wishing you all earthly felicity and 
% continuance of vour love to them. 

A.ccept assurances of the sincere attachment with which I 

Km my dear sister. 

Your affectionate brother, 

Th. J^iriiB«»«. 


2. Sir Walttr Scott to Robert Southey on his inveshture <u Poet 

Laureate. — ( Abridged. ) 

Edinburgh, November 13, 1813. 

I do not delay, my dear Soutbey, to say my gratolatoi. 
Long may yon live, as Faddy says, to mle over us, and to 
redeem the crown of Spenser and of Dry den to its pristitte 
dignity. * * * * 

I was greatly delighted with the circumstances of your in- 
vestiture. It reminded me of the porters at Calais with Dr. 
Smollett's baggage, six of them seizing one small portmanteau . 
and bearing it in triumph to his lodgings. * * * 

Adieu, my dear Southey ; my best wishes attend all that you 
do, and my best congratulations every good that attends you — 
yea, even this, the very least of Providence's mercies, as a poor 
clergyman said when pronouncing grace over a herring. * * 

My best compliments attend Mrs. Southey and your family. 

Ever yours, 

Walteb Soott. 

3. To a Oentleman Elected to Congress, 

Metropolisville, Nov. 5, 1876. 
Hurrah ! the battle is fought and the victory won ! Give 
me your hand, old friend, while I give it a good squeeze of 
congratulation on your election. The result has not surprised 
me in the least. I knew you would be fleeted, because I 
knew that you deserved to be, and that the people of your dis- 
tri:t had sense enough to know it too. Some say, *' Prin- 
ciples, not men " ; but I say " Principles and men." This 
honor is as much a tribute to your personal worth as to the 
correctness of your principles. Just such men as you are 
needed in Congress — never more than now ; and I believe you 
will fulfil every expectation, and honor yourself and your ccn- 
stituents. That such may be the case shall ever be the prayer of— 

Yours faithfully, 

James Hopewelt*. 

Ghables Gk)ODMAN, Esq., Pleasant Valley, Utopia. 



Write a letter of congratulation to a friend on his 
supposed marriage, graduation, recovery from sickness, 
or some other occasion of joy. (See foot-note, page 91.) 

Letters of Condolence. 

Definition and Remarks. — A Letter of Condolence jh 
one written to a friend who has suffered some grievous 
loss or bereavement. 

To write a good letter of condolence, one that shall 
comfort and console the sufferer, requires good taste and 
fine feeling. Persons often, by injudicious words, probe 
afresh the wound they are trying to heal. In ofier- 
ing condolence, do not call up the harrowing details 
of the sad event, nor attempt to argue the sufferer out 
of his (or her) sorrow. Reasons that appeal to the 
head cannot touch the heart. Above all, do not reflect 
any blame, directly or indirectly. What the bleeding 
heart most needs, in the first gush of grief, is sympathy 
— that genuine, tearful sympathy that lessens another's 
grief by sharing it. The expression of this in a few 
loving words, and a pious reference to the great Source 
of consolation, are all that a letter of condolence re- 

Specimen Letters. — The following letters afford ex- 
cellent illustrations of this kind of composition : — 

1. To a Sister on the Death of a Child. 

[The following tender and touching letter was written by a cele- 
brated American aathoress. The bereaved mother said that no other 
letter gave her so much comfort.] 


SiSTEE Da£LINO. — I cannot write what is in my heart for 
you to-day ; it is too full — filled with a double sorrow, for you 
and for myself. Tears blind me; my pen trembles in my band. 
Oh, to be near you! to clasp you in my arms! to draw your 
head^to my bosom and weep with you! Darling, God comfort 
you, I cannot. S. 

2. Another on the Death of a Babe, 
[The conclading seDtences are very beaatifal and appropriate.] 

Charleston, S. C, Dec. 4, 1S75. 

My dear Mary, — I feel that a mother's sorrow for the bss 
of a beloved child cannot be assuaged by the commonplaces of 
condolence ; yet I must write a few lines to assure you of my 
heartfelt sympathy in your grief. There is one thing, how- 
ever, that should soften the sharpness of a mother's agony un- 
der such a bereavement. It is the reflection that little chil- 
dren are pure and guileless, and that "of such is the kingdom 
of heaven." " It is well with the child." Your precious babe 
is now a treasure laid up in a better world, and the gate through 
which it has passed to peace and joy unspeakable is left open, 
80 that yoU; in due time, may follow. Let this be your conso- 

Aflfectionately yours, 

Sarah Yodno. 

Mrs. Mary Browning, Norfolk, Va. 

3 La Fayette to Jefferson^ announcing the death of Madame de 

La Fayette. 

[The following sadly beautiful letter, though not strictly a letter of 
condolence, relates to the subject of death, and therefore belongs to 
this class.] 

Anteuil, January 11, 1808. 
My dear Friend, — The constant mourning of your heart 
rr']] be deepened by the grief I am doomed to impart to it 


Who better than you can sympathize for the loss of a beloved 
wife? The angel who for thirty-four years has blessed my 
life, was to you an affectionate, grateful friend. Pity me, my 
dear Jefferson, and believe me, for ever, with all my heart, 


La Fayette. 

4. Thomas J^erson to John Adams on the death of Mrs. Adam^. 

[The following is probably one of the finest models of a letter of 
condolence that this kind of literature affords.] 

Monticello, November 13, 1818. 
The public papers, my dear friend, announce the fatal event 
of which your letter of October the 20th had given me ominous 
foreboding. Tried myself in the school of affliction, by the 
loss of every form of connection which can rive the human 
heart, I know well, and feel what you have lost, what you 
have suffered, are suffering, and yet have to endure. The 
same trials have taught me that for ills so immeasurable 
time and silence are the only medicine. I will not, therefore, 
by useless condolences, open afresh the sluices of your grief, 
nor, although mingling sincerely my tears with yours, will I 
say a word more where words are vain, but that it is of some 
comfort to us both that the time is not very distant at which 
we are to deposit in the same cerement our sorrows and suffer- 
ing bodies, and to 9.scend in essence to an ecstatic meeting with 
the friends we have loved and lost, and whom we shall still 
love and never lose again. God bless you and support you 

under your heavy affliction. 

Th. Jeppeeson. 


Write a letter of condolence to some real or imagjn- 
ary friend who is supposed to be in grief on account 
of some painful event. (See foot-note, pa^e 9IA 



Beqnisites. — The chief requisites of a business letter 
are clearness, correctness, and conciseness. No more 
words should be used than are necessary ; nor should 
words that are essential to the construction be omitted. 
The omission of pronouns and verbs, for example, is 
a foolish affectation and a blunder. Never write such 
jargon as, " Yours of 10th received, and in reply 
will state," etc. Say, " Your favor of the 10th inst. is 
received, and in reply I will state," etc. An incorrect, 
hurried, slip-shod letter may not unfairly be taken to 
indicate a slip-shod way of doing business. The best 
business letters are models of accurate and even ele- 
gant, though unadorned, English.* 

Business only. — A business letter should be confined 
to business only. This rule, however, does not exclude 
the expression of kind wishes and other formfe of cour- 
tesy. A business man should never forget to be polite. 
If circumstances should seem to require a departure 
from the rule, the personal matter should be added 
after the signature, as a note. 

Remark. — We hope to give in this treatise hints in regard to the 
ineclianical execution and style of letters that will be of great value 
to persons of all classes, business men as well as others; but we do 
not attempt to teach the intricate details of mercantile and other bnsi> 
ness correspondence. These cannot be fully learned in any book: 

* See the excellent collection contained in Anderson's Prcieticai 
Mercantile Letter- Writer, published by D. Appleton & Co., New York. 


they can be mastered only in the business to which they belong. All 
that we aim to do under this head is to give such instructions as will 
enable people of all classes to write in a business-like manner such 
business letters as are required in the exigencies of ordinary life. 
We therefore confine our particular attention to the varieties men* 
tioned below ; believing them to be most used by the greatest num* 
ber of people. 

Kinds hero Noticed. — Of the many varieties of busi- 
ness letters, we shall notice only the following : — 

1. Letters of Introduction (Business) ; 2. Letters 
of Credit; 3. Letters of Application; 4. Letters of 
Recommendation ; 5. Mercantile Letters, including 
(1) Order for Goods, (2) Answer and Invoice : 6. Mis- 
cellaneous Letters. 

Letters op Introduction. 

A business Letter of Introduction is an introduction 
for business purposes only, and entails no social obli- 
gations. In style it should resemble other business 
letters ; that is, it should be clear, accurate, and con- 
cise. In gnost other respects it -resembles a social let- 
ter of introduction, and we therefore need only to refer 
to what is said under that head (see pages 99 and 100). 

Specimen Letter. 

Excelsior Business College, Sept. 30, 1875. 
Me. John D. Falmeb, San Francisco, Cal. 

Deab Sie, — Allow me to introduce to you the bearer, 
Mr. Charles Wilson, a graduate of this institution, who visits 
your city for the purpose of seeking employment as a book- 

It gives me pleasure to assure you that he is a young man 
of good education, strict integrity, and superior ability, and is 
entirely worthy of your confidence. 


Any assistance you may find it in your power to render him 
I shall esteem as a personal favor. 

Yours very truly, 

Henby Pekninqtoh. 

Letters of Credit. 

A Letter of Credit is one in wliich the writer loans 
his credit to the bearer, to a limited extent. That is, 
A asks C to let B have goods or other valuables to a 
certain amount, promising to be responsible for the 
same, should B fail to make payment. 

It closely resembles a letter of introduction. Indeed 
the two are often combined ; that is, a letter of intro- 
duction often contains a clayse asking that credit be 
given if the bearer desires it. 

Specimen Letter. 

Pittsburg, Pa., Nov. 20, 1876. 
Messrs. D. Kitickerbocker & Co., New York. 

Dear Sirs, — Please allow Mr. Thomas Sanders a credit 
tor such goods as he may select, to an amount not exceeding 
one thousand dollars ($1000) for four months. I will become 
responsible to you for the payment of the same, should Mr. 
Sanders fail to make payment at the proper time. 

You will please inform me of the amount for which you give 
credit, and in default of payment notify me immediately. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
Mr. Sanders' signature,* — John Porter. 

Thomas Sanders. 

* The signature of the bearer should be given so that he may be 
identified as the person named in the letter. 


Letters op AppLiCAnoN. 

Sngrgr^stions. — In regard to this class of letteia 'ire 
offer the following suggestions : — 

1. A letter of application should he very carefully 
written, as the letter itself is regarded as a part — often 
the principal part — of the evidence of the writer's fit- 
ness or unfitness for the position applied for. Exam- 
ine caiefully every sentence and every word of the 
letter before sending it, and if a single mistake is de- 
tected, rewrite the whole. If the position is a valuable 
one, an hour, or even a day, spent in writing the appli- 
cation may prove to be time well spent. 

2. Such a letter should be modest. The applicant 
may of course state briefly what opportunities of edu- 
cation he has enjoyed, and what preparation he has 
made ; but his full qualifications and character should 
be stated by others. While the letter should be modest, 
it should not, however, be sycophantic. It should be 
not only respectful, but also se^-respectful ; for a gen- 
uine self-respect is one of the surest passports to the 
respect of others. 

Specimen Letter. 

Lancaster, Fa., October 30, 1885. 
John Looak, Esq., 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Eldorado City. 
SiB: — Having learned that there is a vacancy in Grammar 
School No. 5 of your city, I beg leave to offer myself as a can* 
didate for the position. 


I graduated at the Rugby Normal School, in 1876, and have 
ever since devoted myself to the work of teaching. 

Enclosed you will find testimonials from B. F. Nelson, Esq., 
County Superintendent, and Prof. Wallace, Principal of the 
above-named institution ; and I am also permitted to refer to 
Rev. R. Hunt and Hon. Thomas Brown, of this city. 

Should a personal interview be desired, I shall be glad to 
present myself at such time and place as may be most conve- 
nient to yourself. 

I am, Sir, with much respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

John Thohpsost 

Letters op Recommend51tion. 

A Kecommendation is sometimes given in a letter of 
introduction and sometimes in a separate letter. 

Great care should be exercised in giving recommen- 
dations. Never recommend an unworthy person, and 
never recommend too highly. It may be hard to re- 
fuse a testimonial, but it is base to give a false one. 

Recommendations may be special or general. Those 
of the former class are addressed, like ordinarV letters, 
to some particular person; those of the latter are, not 
limited as to person or occasion. We give below an 
example of each : — 

1. Special Recommendation. 

[Referred to in the Letter of Application on page 111.] 

Rugby Normal School, Oct. 20, 1885. 
John Logan, Esq., 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Eldorado City. 
CiB : — It affords me pleasure to testify to the personal worth 
and educational qualifications of Mr. John Thompson, who 1 


am informed, is an applicant for a position in one of your pub- 
lic schools. 

He graduated at this institution, as his diploma will show, 
in 1876. As a student, he was distinguished for diligence, ac- 
curacy, integrity, and a conscientious discharge of every duty ; 
and these qualities he has carried with him into the school-room 
and into society. Such elements of character, combined with 
aptness in teaching and tact in enforcing discipline, could not 
fail to render him what I have long known him to be, a very 
efficient and superior teacher. I cordially recommend him 
for the position to which he aspires. 

Very respectfully yours, 

James Wallace, Principal 

2. General Recommendation.* 

[Referred to in Letter of Application, page 111.1 

Lancaster, Pa., Sept. 30, 1885. 
Having learned that Mr. John Thompson is desirous of leav- 
ing this city and engaging in the work of teaching elsewhere, 
I am pleased to say, that I have known him long and inti- 
mately ; that his personal character is above reproach ; and 
that he has shown himself to be possessed of tact, learning, en- 
thusiasm, ability to govern, — in short, all the highest elements 
of the successful teacher. I therefore earnestly recommend 
him to any who desire to employ a good instructor, feeling con- 
fident that he will satisfy all reasonable expectations. 

B. F. Nelson, 
County Superintendent. 

How TO Beoik. — Persons are often in doubt how to begin one 
of these open or general recommendations. '• This is to certify 
that," is a very good way when the testimonial can be ex- 
pressed in a single sentence. We give below a few examples : — 

* Strictly speaking, a general recommendation is merely a certifi- 
cate, not a letter. We speak of it here because of its close con nee 
tion witb a genuine letter of recommendatvou. 


1. " Mr. John Jones being about to leaye our employ, it givee ui 
great pleasure to testify," etc. 

2. " Tliis is to certify that Mary Smith, who has been in my employ 
for the last six months, is a good and careful housekeeper," etc. 

8. ' John Williams, the bearer, who is now leaving our employ, has 
teen," etc. 

4. " To whom it may concern : 

" It gives me pleasure to testify to the skill and ability of Miss 
Jenny Lind, who has for the past two years instructed my da :.gtiter 
in music," etc. 


1. Compose a letter of application. 

2. Compose two recommendations — one special, the 
other general, — to accompany the application. 

3. Compose a general recommendation of a house- 
servant, farm-laborer, or mechanic. 

Mekcantile Letters. 

Of the great variety of letters of this class we shall 
speak of only two : (1) Letters ordering Merckandiae; 
and (2) the Answers to them, with enclosed invoices. 

These are business letters that almost every person, 
lady or gentleman, has occasion to write ; and they 
should therefore receive special attention. 

Note. — Letters ordering goods should state very clearly the quan 
tity and kind of articles wanted, and how they are to be sent. In 
ordering books, the title and the author's and publisher's names 
ihould be stated; and if there are various editions published at differ- 
ent prices, the size, style of binding, and publisher's price should also 
be mentioned if possible. In ordering dry-goods, etc., a description 


of the quality should be given, by number or otherwise, or else sam 
pies should be eent. 

Not less than a line should be given to each item ; the quantity 
being written at the left of the page, and the price, if known, at the 

1. Letter Ordering Merchandise (Books). 

Urbana, N. Y., August 31, 1876. 

Messbs. Dombey <& Son, 

No. 13 Astor Place, New York. 

Deab Sibs, — Please send to me, by Adams Ex- 
press, as soon as convenient, the following: — 

'1 doz. Brooks's Written Arithmetic. 

a doz. Westlake's 3000 Practice Words. 

2 copies Longfellow's Poems, Household ed., cloth. 

1 set Little Classic?, 16 volumes, green cloth. 

4 copies Tennyson's Queen Mary, 12mo, cloth. 

When forwarded, please notify me by letter, with enclosed in- 

Very respectfully yours, 

John W. Hosmeb, 
Urbana, Steuben Co., N. Y. 

Note 1. If but few items are contained in the order, as in 
the above example, they may be given either in the body of the 
letter, or at the bottom. In the latter case the letter may be 
written thus : — 

Deab Sibs, — Please send me by Adams Express [or otherwise, a^ 
d Erected] the books named below. 

Yours very respectfully, etc. 

Note 2. If the order is long, it should be made out on a 
separate sheet ; in whicn case the letter may be written thus : — 

D£A.b Sibs, —Please send by Adams Express [or otherwise] the 
articles detailed in the enclosed list, addressed as below. 

Yours very respectfully, etc. A 


Note 3. Always give the express or freight station, and 
state how goods shall be sent. The order, if separate, should 
be headed *' Order of (stating Date)," and should be signed by 
the person or firm ordering. 

Note 4. Packages of goods are sometimes marked " C.O.D." 
(caslt on delivery). When this is the case the bill is payable 
to the Express Company on the delivery of the goods. When 
we order merchandise from a house with which we have not 
acquired a business standing, we should always order in this 
manner, unless we enclose the money or give references. We 
have no right to ask persons to send us goods on credit, unless 
we are known to them to be pecuniarily responsible. 


Copy, fold, and superscribe the above letter, in ac- 
cordance with the directions and models in Chapter II. 

Direction. — Copy the letter on letter paper ; and begin each item 
of the order as you would begin a paragraph. 

2* Answer, Enclosing Invoice. 

13 Astor Place, New York, Sept. 4, 1876. 

Me. John W. Hosmee, 
Urbana, N. Y. 

Sir, — We have this day sent to your addresi 
by Adams Express the books ordered in your favor of tho Slsl 
August. Enclosed you will find an invoice of the same, amount- 
ing to forty-seven ^^ dollars. 

Ho})ing they may arrive in good condition and prove satia 
factory, and soliciting further orders, we are. 

Very respectfully /ours, 


per W. 
p' Per W." denotes the clerk by whom the letter was written.] 



The Invoice Referred to Above.* 

New York, Sept. 4, 1876. 
Mr John W. Hosmer, 

Bought of DoMBEY & Son. 


doz. Brooks's Written Arithmetic, @ 9. 

" Westlake's 3000 Prac. Words, @ 4.20 
Longfellow's Poems, @ 1.50 
set Little Classics, 16 vols., @ .75 
Queen Mary, @ .40 







Received Payment. 

DoMBEY & Son. 

Note 1. When the hill is paid, it should he receipted as 
above. If not paid at the time it is made out, the date of pay- 
ment should he given with the receipt ; thus : — 

Received Payment, Oct. 4, 1876. 

DoMBEY & Son. 

Note 2. Many business houses enclose the invoice without 
a letter ; and if there is any remark to make, they write it on 
the same paper. This is certainly not a good method, as they 
themselves would doubtless admit. Indeed, there are serious 
objections to it, which will readily occur to any one conversant 
with business. The best method is to use printed blanks for 
this purpose, to be filled out with the amount of the invoice, 
and mode and date of shipment, as in the following form : — 

* An Invoice is a statement in detail of goods sold or consigned 
for sale. When applied to goods sold it is frequently called a BiU 
oj Sales; or, if it contains a variety of small items, a JBiU of 


St. Lonis, , 18 . 

M. . » . 

SiE, — Enclosed please find invoice amounting to % - 

forwarded per , Bill of Lading acconipany 

ing. according to your order dated 

The goods leave us in good condition, and we trust will prove sat- 
isfactory. Should anything, however, appear objection ahle, we shall 
feel obliged if you will notify us promptly. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Richard Roe A Co. 


Copy the above reply and the accompanying invoice, 
put them in an envelope, and direct to Mr. Hosmer. 

DiEBCTioir. — The invoice should be written on a piece of cap or 
letter paper properly ruled. If convenient, rule with red ink. 



Write, in your own name, to Mozart, Bach & Co., 
music publishers, 922 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, 
for the following pieces of sheet music, to be sent by 
express, C. 0. D. : Whispering Wind, by WoUenhaupt, 
2 copies ; Grouttes d'Eau, by Ascher, 4 copies ; Lucrezia 
Borgia, by Sydney Smith, 3 copies ; Rippling Waves, 
by Wellenspiel, 5 copies ; Clochettes Galop, by D. Grau, 
1 copy ; German Triumphal March, by Kunkel, 6 copies. 


Answer the above, stating that you have sent the 
music as ordered. Also make out a bill of the music 
and enclose it, charging for the first piece $1 each; 
for the second, 40 cts. ; for the third, 60 ctK. ; for the 


fourtli, 50 cts. ; for the fifth, 40 cts. ; for the sixth. 
75 cts. 

In the answer you of course personate Mozart, Bach <fc Co., an i 
make out the invoice and direct the letter to yourself. 

Miscellaneous Letters. 

1. Application for a Catalogue. 

New Castle, Del., June 15, 1845. 
Prof. D. P. Page, 

Principal of the Stat-e Normal School, 

Albany, N.Y. 
Sib : — Please send me a copy of your last catalogue 
and circular. I design attending school next winter, aAd wish 
to obtain information concerning your terms, course of sfiidy, 
etc. By complying with the above request you will oblige. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mabt Coit6:tt)c*. 

2. Sending a Subscription to a Nettspilpfer. 

Athenia, Chester co,, Pa., Mav 2. 1870. 
To THE Publisher of " The Liter aby Times," 
Boston, Mass. 

Sir, — You will find enclosed a money order for 
three dollars ($3), for which you will please seid to toy address 
a copy of " The Literary Times" for one yeisir, beginning with 
♦he first number of the present volume. 

Iroiits respectfully, 

John Bookman. 

Note. — In such letters bia very careful to write the name and 
directions fully and plainly, to mention the money enclosed, and to 
state when you wish the subscription to begin. "When no time ol 
beginning is mentioned, the subscription will generally date from the 
nelt number, or from the beginning of the volume or quart^er. If 
vour subscription is a renewal, you should so state in your letter. 



1. Write for some publisher's catalogue of books. 

2. Send your subscription to a periodical. 

3. Send a club of five or more subscribers. 

In the latter case the names may be incorporated in the letter, each 
on a separate line, or they may be given below. If the papers arc 
all to be sent to the same post-office, so state ; if to different ] ost 
:ffice8, write the directions after each name. 

A Model Business Letter. 

Philadelphia, Nov. 23, 1872. 
Nathaniel Silsbee, Esq., 

Treasurer of Harvard College. 

Sir: — The printed circular of the 16th inst., signed by Pres 
ident Eliot in behalf of the Harvard College, and describing 
the effect'of the late fire in Boston upon the pecuniary resources 
of the college, has given great regret to all in this city who have 
read it, and to myself personally, a graduate of the college, a 
j)ain that has the sadness of sorrow. With the faithfulness, 
therefore, of a loving son for a nursing mother, I contribute 
what I call at presetil to the alleviation of her severe loss. 

Enclosed is a draft of thi« date by the Philadelphia National 
Banii, upon the cashier of the Globe National Bank of Boston 
N.\ 673, for otie thousand dollars ($1000), payable in bankable 
funds to my order, and by me endorsed payable to your order 
as Treasurer of Harvai*d College. 

I request that this sum, when paid, may be placed at the dis- 

^'osal of the President and Fellows of Harvard College, foi 

^uch uses of the college as upon this occasion they may think best 

Please advise me of the safe arrival of my letter and iti 


I remain, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant. 

Horace Binnet, 

A graduate of the Class of 1797. 


The Literature of Letters. 



1. A Bird's-Eye View. 

2. Gleanings. 

Definition. — The Literature of Letters is the pub- 
lished correspondence of eminent men and women. 

It constitutes, not only a large, but also an interest- 
ing and important part of our literary treasures ; and 
the present chapter is designed to impress this truth 
as forcibly as possible on the mind of the reader. 

Remark. — in pursuance of this design, we divide the chapter into 
two sections ; the first giving a general view of the field, the second 
p esenting a few golden grains of truth as specimens of its riches. 

A Bird's-Eye VijeW of the Field of Letters. 


' 1. Interest op Letters 
2. VAtitJE OP Letters. 

3. LfiTTtefe-WttlTEBS. 

^ 4. Bibliography of Letters. 

Interest* — There is no other kind of writing that 
possesses for us such a livihg, human interest, a.?v l^V 

77 \«i.\ 


ters ; for there is no other that comes so near to the 
private lives, " to the business and boftoms," of the 
writers. Though written, as all genuine letters are, 
ibr the private eye of one or two familiar friends, ard 
without any thought of their publication, they never- 
theless often form the most interesting and imperish- 
able of an author's productions. " Such as are writtet 
from wise m'en," says Lord Bacon, " are of all the words 
of men the best : they are more natural than orations 
and public speeches, and more advised than conferences 
or private ones." 

And it is this natural and unstudied character that 
renders their style so attractive. In other productions 
there is the restraint induced by the feeling that a 
thousand eyes are peering over the writer's shoulder 
and scrutinizing every word ; while letters are written 
when the mind is as it were in dressing-gown and slip- 
pers — free, natural, active, perfectly at home, and with 
all the fountains of fancy, wit, and sentiment in full play. 

Talue. — Epistolary literature is valuable, in the 
first place, to the student of history and biography. 
" Nothing," as Horace Walpole justly observes, " gives 
80 just an idea of an age as genuine letters ; nay, his- 
tory waits for its last seal for them ; " and Bacon 
says that " letters of aflfairs . . . are, of all othei-s, 
the best instructions of history, and to a diligent rea lei 
the best histories themselves." To a biographer, this 
literature is almost indispensable ; for in his letters we 
get nearer than anywhere else to a man's inner life — 
to his motives, principles, and intentions. A man will 
often confide to the ear of friendship things that policy 


or pride compels Idm to withhold from the public. 
Our best biographies, indeed, are those that are most 
autobiographical; those that are drawn most largely 
from the letters and conversations of their subjects. 

It is valuable, secondly, to the general reader ; and 
for three reasons : — 

1. Because of the knowledge it imparts of the per- 
sons and events described. 

2. Because of ita moral influence. It brings us into 
intimate companionship with the great and good who 
have lived before us ; laying bare, as it were, their 
inmost hearts for our inspection ; showing us how they 
thought, felt, suffered, and triumphed ; and leading us 
to emulate their virtues and avoid their errors. 

3. Because it is a means of literary culture.* Be- 
sides the general literary influence that it has in com- 
mon with other good reading, it has a direct and power- 
ful effect in the formation of a good epistolary style. 
Whatever may be said to the contrary, every man's 
style is formed, to a great extent, by unconscious im- 
itation. The more we study Irving, for example, the 
more our style will resemble his ; and if we study va- 
rious authors, our style, though none the less our own, 

* Literary culture is a fcerm often used without any definite idea 
of its meaning. Perhaps it may be defined, in a general way, as men- 
tal imprwement derived jrom the Hudy of literature. On analysis it 
will be found to contain three elements : — 

1. Literary knowledge; that is, a knowledge of books and authors. 

2. Literary taste ; that is, the ability to perceive and properly esti- 
mate the beauties and blemishes of literary productions. 

3. Literary expression ; that is, the power of expressing thought 
with correctness and elegance. 


»■■ ■■■■■■■■IP- ■ ■--■■ ■ I. ■ ■■■■ lai^^— ^i^^ mm 

will be a web woven of many threads — " a coat of many 
colors." It is evident, therefore, that the diligent 
perusal of the letters of the best writers is the best 
possible means of improving the style of our owa 

Letter- Writers. — The greatest authors are not always 
the best letter-writers ; and the greatest letter- writers 
are not always the best authors. Excellence in letter- 
writing requires peculiar quaHfications. It requires 
education, talents, information, facility of expression, 
and above all, tact. As a general rule, women are 
better letter- writers than men ; partly, perhaps, because 
as a class they have more leisure, but mainly because 
they have more tact than men, and at the same time 
more vivacity and fluency. 

It is unfortunate that thousands of the most sprightly 
and entertaining correspondents are wholly unknown 
to fame. Their letters are read, admired, laughed or 
ciied over, and then laid aside or consigned to the 
flames. It is only after a person has distinguished 
himself in something else, that the world bethinks itself 
of his letters ; and it must be confessed that the letters 
of great men are often neither witty nor wise. 

Biblio^aphy of Letters. — To those who desire to 
acquaint themselves further with this delightful de- 
partment of literature, we recommend the following 
authors as among those whose letters have excited the 
admiration of the world: — * 

* There are many valuable collections of letters that are not here 
mentioned. We notice only some of the best of those #hich are of 
interest to the general reader. 

A BIRD' 8' EYE VIEW. 126 

John Adams. Letters to his Wife. 

Mbs. Adams. The familiar letters of Mr. and Mrs. Adams have 
recently been published in one volume, edited by their grandson, 
Charles Francis Adams. 

John Quincy Adams. See Diary and Correspondence. 

Thomas Jefferson. See Randall's and Parton's Life of Jefferson 
and especially Mrs. Randolph's " Domestic Life of Thomas Jeffer- 
son." The latter is an excellent book for young or old ; not only 
on account of the exhibition it affords of the highest private virtues ; 
but also on account of the wise precepts expressed in its many ad- 
mirable letters. Better doinestic letters than Jefferson's can no- 
where be found. 

lIoRACB Walpole. Letters, 9 vols. They are clever, spicy, gos- 
sipy. Walpole has been called " the prince of letter- writers." He 
lived in the reigns of George II. and George III. (1717 to 1797.) 

William Cowper, the Poet. See Life and Works, by Southey. 
Cowper's letters are what may be called " talking letters," easy, 
playful, unaffected. They have been called " the finest specimens 
of epistolary style in the language." {Reo. Robert HdU.) 

Thomas Gray (author of the Elegy). His letters are among the 
finest models of epistolary excellence. 

Alexander Pope. His letters art clever and brilliant, but some- 
what affected. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Letters, edited by Mrs. Hale. 
She was contemporary with Walpole and Pope. 

Madame de Sevigne. Letters, translated from the French. No- 
thing can exceed their grace and naturalness of style. 

wIadame Swetchine. Life and Letters. Full of splendid thoughts 
and glowing with religious fervor and consecration 

Madame Recamier. See " Madame Recamier and her Friends." 

Charles and Mary Lamb. See Poems, Letters, and Remains, b; 
Hazlitt ; also the Biographies by Procter (Barry Cornwall) and 
Talfourd. In quaint humor, ease, anti sprightliness, Lamb's let* 
ters have never been surpassed. 

Lord Byron. See Life and Letters, by Moore. 

Thomas Moore. See Life, bv Lord Russell. 


Mary Eussell Mitfobd. See James T. Fields's " Yesterdays witL 

Washington Irving. See Life and Letters, by Pierre M. Irving 
His letters, like his other writings, are delightful. The work men- 
tioned contains, in addition to the letters of Irving, many valuable 
letters from Moore, Scott, and other distinguished literary men. 

Charles Dickens. Hi^ letters are eminently characteristic — easy, 
witty, brilliant, full of life and gayety. See his Life, by Forst-er, 
also " Yesterdays with Authors," and " Anecdote Biographies of 
Thackeray and Dickens," Bric-^i-Brac Series. 

William M. Thackeray. Fresh, breezy, bubbling over with fun, 
like their author. See the last two works referred to above. 

Mozart, Mendelssohn. And Beethoven. Their letters are ftill 
of fine feeling, finely and naturally expressed. They may be ob- 
tained in English translations. 

Rev. F. W. Robertson. See Life and Letters. His letters are ex- 
cellent, both in a religious and literary sense. 

Henry Crabb Robinson. Diary and Correspondence, 2 vols. Very 

Susan Allibone. Diary and Letters, by Bishop Lee. Full of 
Christian fervor and womanly tenderness and affection. 

Augustus. Julius, and Maria Hare. See Records of a Quiet Life. 
Full of refinement, grace, and culture, with glimpses into the upper 
circles of English thought and influence. Models of familiar style. 

Mrs. Emily C. Judson (Fanny Forrester). Life and Letters. Very 
licHutiful and interesting, and glowing with religious devotion. 

(iOETHE. Correspondence with Schiller. Letters to a Leipsic Friend, 
Correspondence with a Child (Bettine Brentano). 

Rev. Alfred Cooeman. See Life. It contains many fine letters, 
full ot piety ati affection. 

Collections of Letters. 

Library oj Standard Letter^, compiled by Mrs. Hale. Many of theM 
letters aie by authors mentioned above. 

Literature in Letters, an interesting and valuable collection, by 1. P. 

MdlJ- Hours with the Best Letter- Writers, by Knight, 2 vols. 



Gleanings in the Field of Lettebs. 

In our rambles in the field of letters we have picked 
up a handful of ripe ears, filled with golden grains of 
truth. These we present to our readers that they may 
know what a goodly land it is, and be induced to go 
and gather for themselves — not a few ears only, but 
whole sheaves of this rich fruitage of wisdom. 

1. Bums's Idea of a Good Wife — his Own. 

The most placid good nature and Bweetness of disposition ; a 
warm heart gratefully devoted with all its powers to love me ; 
vigorous health, and sprightly cheerfulness, set off to the best 
advantage by a more than commonly handsome figure ; these, 
I think, in a woman, may make a good wife, though she should 
never have read a page but tie Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments, nor have danced in a brighter assembly than a 
penny-pay wedding. — Robert Bums to Mrs. Dunlop. 

2. Let U8 Love one Another. 

Let me conclude by saying to you, what I have had too 
frequent occasions to say to my other remaining friends, — the 
fewer we become, the more let us love one another. — Benj. 
Franklin to Mrs. Hewson. 

3. The Lot of every Public Man. 

I have long been accustomed to receive more blame, as well 
as more praise, than I deserved. 'T is the lot of every public 
man, and I have one account to balance the other. — Franklin, 

4. Belifirlous Comfort. 

my good friend ! there is no other stable foundation for 
solid comfort but the Christian religion ; not barely acknow- 
ledged as a truth from the conviction of ext^xwAX «^\dK^^^ 


. — » 

(Btrong and important as it is), bat from embracing it as a prin 
ciple of hope and joy and peace, and from feeling its suitable- 
ness to the wants and necessities of our nature, as well as its 
power to alleviate and even sanctify our sorrows. — Hannah 
More to Sir W. W. Pepys. 

5. WordBworth'8 Sister. 

Wordsworth and his exquisite sister are with me. She is a 
woLxan indeed ! in mind, I mean, and heart; for her person is 
such, that if you expected to see a pretty woman, you would 
think her rather ordinary ; if you expected to see an ordinary 
woman, you would think her rather pretty ; but her manners 
are simple, ardent, impressive. In every motion her inno6ent 
soul shines out so brightly, that who saw would say, — 

" Guilt is a thing impossible in her." 

Her information various. Her eye watchful in minutest obser- 
vation of nature ; and her taste a perfect electrometer. — S. T. 
Coleridge to Joseph Cottle. * 

6. Leniency to the Living. 

If we were only half as lenient to the living as we are to the 
dead, how much happiness might we render them, and from 
how much vain and bitter remorse might we be spared, when 
the grave, the all-atoning grave, has closed over them ! — Lady 
BUmngton to Walter Savage Landor. 

7. Momingr* 

I ktow the morning ; I am acquainted with it and love it, 
fresh and sweet as it is ; a daily new creation, breaking forth 
and calling all that have life and breath and being to new 
adoration, new enjoyments, and new gratitude. — Daniel Wch- 
tier to Mrs. Page. 

8. Comfort derived f^om Literature. 

Many, many a dreary, weary hour have I got over, many 
A gloomy misgiving postponed, many a mental or bodily an- 


noyance forgotten, by help of the tragedies and comedies of 
our dramatists and novelists ! Many a trouble has been soothed 
by the still small voice of the moral philosopher, — many a drag- 
cn-like care charmed to sleep by the sweet song of the poet ; 
for all which I cry incessantly, not aloud, but. in my heart, 
Thanks and honor to the glorious masters of the pen, and the 
great inventors of the press ! — Thos. Hood. 


9. "The Feast of Beason." 

But "the feast of reason and the flow of soul" were still 
mine. Denied beef [by the doctor], I had Bulwer and Cbw;per; 
forbidden mutton, there was Lamb ; and in lieu of pork, the 
great Bacon or Hogg. Then as to beverage, it was hard doubt- 
less for a Christian to set his face like a Turk against the juice 
of the grape ; but eschewing wine, I had still my Butler, and 
in the absence of liquor, all the choice spirits from Tom Browne 
to Tom Moore. — Hood. 

10. Pope's Birthday. 

Every year carries away something dear with it, till we out- 
live all tendernesses, and become wretched individuals again, 
as we begun. Adieu ! This is my birthday, and this is my 
reflection upon^t: — 

With added days, if life give nothing new, 
But like a sieve, let every pleasure through ; 
Some joy still lost, as each vain year runs o'er, 
And all we gain, some sad reflection more ! 
Is this a birthday? — 'lis, alas! too clear, 
'T is but the funeral of the former year. 

—Alexander Pope to Mr. Gay, on his recovery and the death oj 

11. An Editor's Responsibilities. 

The conductor of a newspaper should, methinks, consider 
himself as, in some degree, the guardian of his country's rep- 
utation, and refuse .to insert such writings as may huit vt. tl 


people will print their abases of one another, let Uiem do it in 
little pamphlets, and distribute them where they think proper. 
It is absurd to trouble all the world with them ; and unjust to 
subscribers in distant places, to stuff their paper with matters 
BO Tinprofitable and disagreeable. — Benj. Franklin to PrancU 

12. MaklTig the Best of our Friends. 

If the lady has anything difficult in her disposition, avoid 
what is rough, and attach her good qualities to yours. Con- 
sider what are otherwise as a bad stop in your harpsichord, 
and do not touch it, but make yourself happy with the good 
ones. Every human being, my dear, must be thus viewed, 
according to what he is good for ; for none of us, no, not one, 
is perfect ; and were we to love none who had imperfections, 
this world would be a desert for our love. All we can do is 
to make the best of our friends, love and cherish what is good 
in them, and keep out of the way of what is bad ; but no more 
think of rejecting them for it, than of throwing away a piece 
of music for a flat passage or two. — Thomas Jefferson to hu 

18. Woman's Position. 

A woman's position is one of subjection, af mythically de- 
scribed as a curse in the Book of Genesis. Well, but I ween 
that all curses are blessings in disguise. Labor among thorns 
and thistles, — man's best health. Woman's subjection ? What 
say you to His [Christ's]? "Obedient," a "servant"; where- 
fore God also hath highly exalted Him, Methinks a thought- 
ful, higb-souled woman would scarcely feel degraded by a lot 
which assimilates her to the divinest Man. " He came not to 
be ministered unto, but to minister." * * * Trust 
me, a noble woman laying on herself the duties of her sex, 
while fit for higher things, — the world has nothing to show 
more like the Son of Man than that. * * * •• There 
is nothing in the drudgery of domestic duties to soften," — 
jrou quote that. No. but a gr^at deal to strengthen with the 


Bense of duty done, self-control and power. Besides, you can- 
not calculate how much corroding dust is kept off, — how much 
cf disconsolate, dull despondency is hindered. Daily use is not 
the jeweller's mercurial polish ; but it will keep your little 
silver pencil from tarnishing. — Bev. F. PF. Robertson to a Lady, 

14. The End of the World. 

As to preparations for that event [the end of the world], the 
best way is for you always to be prepared for it. The only 
way to be so is, never to say or do a bad thing. If you are 
about to say anything amiss, or to do anything' wrong, con- 
sider beforehand ; you will feel something within you which will 
tell you it is wrong, and ought not to be said or done. This 
is your conscience ; and be sure and obey it. Our Maker has 
given us all this faithful internal monitor, and if you always 
obey it you will always be prepared for the end of the world ; 
or for a much more certain event, which is death. This must 
happen to all ; it puts an end to the world as to us ; and the 
way \m be ready for it is never to do a wrong act. — ThorruM 
Jefferson to his daughter Martha. 

15. Never Contradict. 

It was one of the rules which, above all others, made Doctoi 
Franklin the most amiable of men in society, never to contra- 
dict Any body. If he was urged to announce an opinion, he 
did it rather by asking questions, as if for information, or by 
suggesting doubts. When I hear another express an opinion 
which is not mine, I say to myself. He has a right to his opin- 
ion, as I to mine; why should I question it? His error doe% 
me no injury, and shall I become a Don Quixote, to bring all 
men by force to one opinion ? If a fact be misstated, it is 
probable he is gratified by a belief of it, and I have no right 
to deprivef him of the gratification. If he wants information, 
he will ask it, and then I will give it in measured terms ; but 
if he still believes his own story, and shows a desire to dispute 
the fact with me, I hear him, and say nothing. It is his affair, 
not mine, if he prefers error. — Thomas Jefferson. 


le. The Folly of War. 

All wars are follies, very expensive and very mischievous 
ones : when will mankind become convinced of this, and agree 
to settle their difficulties by arbitration? Were they to do it, 
even by the cast of a die, it would be better than by fighting 
and destroying one another. — Benj. Franklin. 

17. The Greatest of all Blessinsrs. 

I, too, your God-father, have known what the enjoyments 
and advantages of this life are, and what the more refined 
pleasures which learning and intellectual power can bestow ; 
and with all the experience which more than three-score years 
can give, I now, on the eve of my departure, declare to you 
(and earnestly pray that you may hereafter live and act on the 
conviction), that health is a great blessing, — competence ob- 
tained by honorable industry is a great blessing, — and a great 
blessing it is to have kind, faithful, honest relatives ; but that 
the greatest of all blessings, as it is the most ennobling* of all 
privileges, is, to be indeed a Christian. — S. T. Coleridge to a 
Ood- child. 

18. Indolence. 

Of all the cankers of human happiness none corrodes with so 
silent, yet so baneful an influence as indolence. — Thonuu 

19. Angrel's Work. 

She told me the delight, the tears of gratitude, which she 
had witnessed in a poor girl to whom, in passing, I gave a kind 
look on going out of church on Sunday. What a lesson ! How 
cheaply happiness can be given ! What opportunities we miss 
of doing t^ngel's work ! I remember doing it, full of sad feel • 
ings, passing on and thinking no more about it ; and it gave 
an hour's sunshine to a human life, and lightened the load of 
life to a human heart. — Rev. F. W. Robertson. 


20. The Secret of Happiness. 

A mind always employed is always happy. This is the true 
secret, the grand recipe, for felicity. The idle are the only 
wretched. — Thomas Jefferson to his Daughter. 

21. Inarticulate Sorrows. 

The misfortunes of genius, its false direction, its misery, I 
Buppose rise partly from the fact of the life of genius being that 
which is chiefly given to the world. Many a soldier died as 
bravely and with as much suffering as Sir John Moore at Co- 
runna ; but every soldier had not a Wolfe to write his death- 
song. Many an innocent victim perished, — yes, by hundreds 
of thousands, — on the scaffolds of France, and in the dungeons 
of the robber barons, but they died silently. A few aristocrats 
whose shriek was loud have filled the world with pity at the 
tale of their suffering. Many a mediocre boy have I seen spoilt 
at school, — many a comjnonplace destiny has been marred in 
life . only these things are not matters of history. Peasants 
grow savage with domestic troubles, and washerwomen pine 
under brutal treatment ; but the former are locked up for bury- 
ing their misery in drunkenness, — the latter die of a broken- 
heart, with plenty of unwritten poetry lost among the soap- 
suds. I fancy the inarticulate sorrows are far more pitiable 
than those of an Alfieri, who has a tongue to •utter them. Car- 
lyle in this respect seems to me to hold a tone utterly diverse 
from that of the Gospel. The worship of the hero, that is his 
religion : condescension to the small and unknown, that was 
His. — Bev. F. W. Robertson. 

212. To be a Poet is to be a Man. 

I have a thorough aversion to his [Byron's] character, and a 
very moderate admiration of his genius ; he is great in so little 
a way. To be a poet is to be a man ; not a petty portion of 
occasional low passion worked up into a permanent form of 
humanity. — Charles Lamb to Joseph Gottle. 


23. Patient Endurance. 

When we Bee ourselves in a situation which must be endured 
and gone through, it is best to make up our minds to it, meet 
it with firmness, and accommodate everything to it in the best 
way practicable. This lessens the evil; while fretting and 
fuming only serves to increase our own torments. — Thos. Jej- 

24. Grief and Gratitude over the Dead. 

When I heard of his death, there mingled with my griei a 
feeling of gratitude that I had been preserved from saying one 
word, through partisan zeal or difference of opinion, which 
could add bitterness to his life ; that I had none of the late re- 
morse over the dead, for unkindness to the living, which is one 
of the saddest burdens of humanity. No words of praise are 
needed. They would be lost in the general eulogy. With 
common consent he will take his place in the Valhalla of 
American worthies, as one of the greatest and best. — John G, 
Whittier to Dr. Chapin on the death of' Horace Greeley. 

26. The Virtues of Oratory.* 

The virtues of oratory are these, — truth, conciseness, perspi- 
cuity, and suitableness to the occasion. The contraries to these 
. are its vices, — falsehood, prolixity, obscurity, and unseason- 
ableness. For what will it avail us to be true, if we are not 
concise, ^nd concise, if not clear, and clear, if not seasonable ? 
When all these virtues meet in a composition, it is then that it 
is effective, and impressive, and living. It leads the hearers by 
the ioTCQ of truth, exercises their thoughts by its brevity, 
captivates by its perspicuity, and is consummated by its suit- 
sbleness to the occasion. — Isidore of Felusium, of the fourth Cen- 
ivry, to Nilus. 

* " History of Letter- Writing, from the Earliest Period to the Fiftb 
Century." By William Roberts, Esq., Barrister at Law. London: 
William Pickering, 1843. It contains, besides much valuable histor- 
ical matter, extracts from the letters of Pythagoras, Cicero, Seneca 
Pliny, and many other distinguished men of antiquity. 

Notes and Cards. 

I. Notes. 

1 2. 


Of Ceremony and Compliment. 

II. Cards. 

' 1. Ceremonial. 

2. Visiting. 

3. Professional and Official, 

4. Business. 

Remark. — The subject of letter- writing includes a knowledge, nol 
only of the structure and composition of letters proper, but also of 
the forms and uses of Notes and Cards. These will be discussed in 
the present division of our work ; and each part of the above title 
will form the subject of a distinct chapter. It will be necessary, how- 
ever, to anticipate some of the uses of cards in the chapter on notes 
the former being often enclosed in the latter. 



I. Inteoducstion. 
II. Notes of Ceremony and Compliment. 

III. Miscellaneous Notes. 

IV. Superscription and Delivery. 


Definition. — Any short letter is in one sense a note , but 
by the term wofe, as here used tiq inft^TL \Jcio^^ \i\\^ tsvsr^^';^ 


of transient and local interest by which persons in the same 
neighborhood, town, or city, make known to each #ther their 
wishes, compliments, or commands. 

Peculiarities. — Notes (or Billets) differ from ordinary letters 
in the following particulars : 1. They are more formal ; 2. They 
are written wholly or partly in the third person ; 3. The date 
is generally at the bottom ; 4. They are without signature. 

These are merely general characteristics, which admit of modifications and 
exceptions. The latter will be pointed oat in connection with the models which 
illustrate them. 

When Used. — Notes or letters in the third person are ap- 
propriately used in the following cases : — 

1. Between equals : (1) In all matters of ceremony, such as 
weddings, dinners, etc. ; (2) In any brief communications be- 
tween persons but slightly acquainted. 

2. Between untquals: By a superior in addressing an infe- 
rior, and vice versa, in any brief and formal message. 

Difficulty. — It is a difficult thing to write a note in the 
third person, if it extends beyond a sentence or two. 

Great care must be taken not to change from the third per- 
son to the first or second. This is a mistake frequently made 
by inexperienced persons. The following is an example : — 

Miss Smith is much obliged to Mr. Hawkins for his beautiful 
Christmas present. I should have thanked you sooner, but have 
been absent from home. 

Materials. — Quality. — The paper and envelopes used for 
notes should be plain, and of the heaviest and finest quality. 

Color. — For weddings only pure white is allowable ; for 
other occasions very delicate tints may be used, but white is 
always in good taste. 

Size — No definite size nor shape can be given, as styles are 
constantly varying. The sizes most in use at present are the 
long sheet, folding once into square envelopes or twice into 
oblong Envelopes ; and the square sheet, folding once into a 
very long envelope : but these styles may in a short time fqve 
place to some other. 

NOTES. 137 

Monogram, etc, — Both paper and envelopes may have em- 
bossed or printed on them the monogram, initial<, crest, or coat- 
of-arms of the writer. Wedding notes formerly bore a mon- 
ogram composed of the combined initials of the bride and the 
bridegroom ; but they are now entirely plain. 

Outside Envelopes. — Invitations to weddings, parties, etc., are 
enclosed in two envelopes ; first a fine one, to match the note, 
then a coarser one, to protect the other. In such cases the full 
address is written on the outer envelope, and the name alone 
on the inner one. Answers to invitations do not require out- 
side envelopes ; nor do any private or personal notes, whether 
formal or informal. 

Style. — The most fashionable notes, like the most fashion- 
able people, are characterized by an elegant simplicity. The lan- 
guage is concise but courteous, the writing (or engraving) plain 
but beautiful. In notes and letters, all flourishes, whether of 
tongue or pen, are out of place. Here, as elsewhere, the most 
refined taste expresses itself in richness of material, beauty of 
form, harmony of parts, and perfect adaptation to circumstances, 
rather than in excessive ornament and ostentatious display. 
Indeed, it will always be found, in literature, in art, in charac- 
ter, and everywhere, that the severest simplicity is consistent 
with the truest refinement and the highest elegance. 

French Phrases. — The following French words and phrases 
or their initials are sometimes used on notes and cards; but 
English phrases are usually to be preferred : — 

JR S. V. P. = Repondez s'U voits plait, answer if you please. 

P. P. C. «a Pour prendre congi, to take leave. 

Costume de rigueur, full dress, in character. 

FSte ChampHre, a rural entertainment. 

J>al masque, masquerade ball. 

En ville — E. V., in the town or city. 

Soirie dansante, dancing party. 

Kinds. — For convenience of discussion we divide notes into 
two general classes : I. Notes op Ceremokt and Compliment; 
II. Miscellaneous Notes. 







c hurch. 

Weddings! '^°^'*°""'y-lM 
(^ To Reception. 

Announcements of Marriage. 

Anniversary Weddings. 


Social Parties. 


College Anniversaries. 

Various Occasions. 

^11. Accept ANCE8 and Regrets. 

I. Invitations. 

Weddings* — Wedding invitations are issued ten days or 
more before the ceremony, by the parents or nearest friends of 
the bride. They may be written or printed on note paper or 
on cards ; but the note form is generally preferred for all cere- 
monious invitations. 

Notes and cards may be printed either troxn. engraved plates or from type. 
Those printed from plates are greatly superior in style and finish to the othei«» 
and are almost exclusively used by fashionable people. 

Answers. — If an answer is expected, the words, " The favor of an 
answer is requested," or the letters " R. S. V. P.," are written or printed 
at the bottom. (See " Acceptances and Regrets," page 152.) 

We give below a few models of wedding notes, the first and 
third being complete, the others requiring one or more cards : — 

Model !• — Ceremony and Reception. 

[This model is printed in script type, in order to exhibit the style of the best 
engraved billets. To economize space we print some of the other modelH in or- 
dinary type. 

This displayed style should not be attempted in writing, except by a skilfnl 
penman. For ordinary writers the etyle of Model 4 is best.] 

NOTES. 139 

This form is not so much used as those with cards. 

«v^ 4t%^ ^**49 4 '4'*^afi^ -t^ 'i^X^€4 'fiUt^t^f^S^ 


//^■e^'t^'p0^fu^'^ ^^y^^^i^tt^^^-af^ ^if$^t-e4't€4^ ^-eoptf^n^ 


^c^tfM ^^^^'^t^td^T^ 4^M '/♦^r «v«4r. 

*The words " the pleasure of your <Mnitpany " seem to imply social intercourse; 
it is better, therefore, when pernoiis are invited to witness a ceremony, simply, at 
church or elsewhere, to use the words, " your jirt»enic«" or their equivalent. In 
iffritten notes the funiM or nam/u should be used Vn^lesA o^ ^^ "jovvt.** 



Model 2* — Cerenwny. 

requests the pleasure of^your company at the marriage 
ceremony of her daughter^ 


fm Tuesday afternoon. May twenty-fifth, 1875, at four o*clock. 

Waverley Terrace. BaUimore, 

Enclosing a reception card as follows : — 


On Monday, May thirty-first, 

day and evening. 

Or, " Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Whitson at home " at a certain time and plaea 

Model 3* — Ceremony and Rec^tion, 

First Qmgregational Church, New Gloucester^ Maine^ 
on Monday, June fourteenth^ at ten o'clock, 

^"Mi ^omcv® 

Tuesdays and Fridays in June^ 

at the residence of Dr. Charles C, Porter^ 
415 Church Street. 

FBAyx R, Boyle. 

AxrsA H. MooBS. 

NOTES. 141 

Model ^« — Reception (with Fersoual Cards). 

[Thin form ia printed in script as a model for written notes. It will be observed 
that the first line is indented ; that is, it begins a little further to the right than the 
other lines, being, in fact, the beginning of a paragraph. This indentation should 
be from one-half to three-fourths of an inch. If either the residence or the date 
is given, it should begin directly under the first letter of the note; if both are 
given, they should be written as in (his model. If the sheet is to be folded twice, 
the note should be written in the middle of the page ; if but once, the note, if 
short, should be written on the lower half of the page, to avoid creasing. 

Printfd invitations are partly in the second person (your), so that the same 
form may answer for all : or else a blank is left for the name, to be filled up with 
the pen. Writttn notes should be wholly in the third person, as below : — ] 


^o^t^m-M^ -^^4^44^ *€*e^/€i^'^t^ 4^C4^t4i€^4^ -^^JMi^^ 

^C^ cxv-rf'-rx^ t^^^Ti^ 


c.-^^, ^4C J^^. 

Besides the cards of the bride and groom, a third card is sent to those who ar« 
desired to be present at the ceremony, containing the words, *' Ceremony at —— 
o'clock." Thoee who do not receive this card, of course attend the recevtloa oal^ . 



Model 5* — Ceremony, 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. AUen request the pleasure of your com' 
pany at the marriage of their daughter, on Tuesday morning 
June fifteenth, at eleven o'clock, 

17 Nahant Street. 

Enclosing personal and reception cards ; or reception card aloue 
with the names at the bottom as in Model 3. 

Miscellaneous Models. 

[Of course these are models in language only, not in sise or shape.) 

(8th above Spruce), 

Tuesday, January 30, at twelve o'clock. 

James Mobtov, Ma&t Sohhek. 

At home after February fifth. 

314 & Third St., Philadelphia. 

[No cards required.] 

Mount Street, Jertey &iy, 
[Pers. and Recep. cards enclosed.] 

8;^e ^arnage of 

Jahk Faibbahks to H. W. Reyholds 

wHl be golemnized at Orace Church, 

Orange, New Jersey, 

on Thursday afternoon, January eighth, 

at five o'clock. 

[Reception card enclosed.] 


e damage Ceitmsni; 

wUl be solemnized at SL PoiiT* Ckmrth, 

On Monday evening, Sept. fir ti, 187S. 

Your presence it reqtietted. 

[Reception card enclosed.) 

reques tfye pleasure of your company 
at the marriage ceremony of their 
daughter Anna to J. Howabd Uoopes, 
JPffth-day afternoon. Fifth month, fif- 
teenth, 1874, at four o'clock. 

New Garden, Pa. 

Her SPiajtstg t^e %itm 

desires the honor of your prtaemee at 
the marriage of Her Royal Si^meu 

The Pbihcess Louise 
, Tbe Mabuois of Lobxb, 

Windsor Castle, Tuesday, Marsh 21st, 
at eight o'clock. 

NOTES. 143 

Amionncements* — Sometimes notes are issued after the 
wedding, announcing the marriage and enclosing a reception 
card to those who are desired to call. The following form may 
be used : — 

Mr. William B. Davidson, 

Miss Laura Campbell^ 


Wednesday, October twenty-first, 1874, 

The ahove is written or engraved on a note sheet, in which is en* 
closed a reception card, in the following form : — 

Mr. & Mrs. William B. Davidson 

At Home 

November first, day and evening, 

536 N. Broad Street. 

Anotheb Method. — Or, the announcement may be made 
by sending two cards : a large one, containing the combined 
names, with residence and time of reception ; and a smaller one, 
containing the bride's maiden name. 

Ajmiyersary Weddings* — Sometimes people celebrate vari- 
ous anniversaries of their marriage ; and it is a practice much 
to be commended, if these celebrations are made occasions of 
Bincere congratulations and happy reminiscences, not of cold 
formality and foolish ostentation. The first anniversary is 
called the Paper Wedding; the fifth, the Wooden Wedding; the 
tenth, the Tin Wedding; the fifteenth, the Crystal (glass) 
Wedding; the twenty-fifth, the Silver Wedding; the fiftieth, 
the Golden Wedding; and the seventy-fifth, the Diamond 
Wedding. We give below two forms of invitation. 

The following have been recently added to the above list:. the twcn 
tieth anniversary, known as the Floral Wedding; the thirtieth, the 
Pearl Wedding; the thirty-fifth, the CAina Wedding; the fortieth, the 
Ooral Wedding ; the forty-fifth, the Bronze Wedding. 



Model 1. — Wooden Wedding. 

gr. mi |[r8. |. |. |[oorc 

This invitation is printed on a square note sheet folded once, and 
enclosing a tooocZen carc2 inscribed as follows : — 

.^^-^ «o. i^^^ 

;• |»se«* 


1^*^ |«"l« |- |aiton 

^V SO, ^® 



Model 2* — Golden Wedding. 


r. and 






Sometimes a card is enclosed containing the words, "It is pre- 
ferred that no wedding gifts be offered." 

DinperSa — ^A well-appointed dinner is one of the most de- 
lightful occasions of social life. The company is generally more 
select than at an ordinary party, and greater care and precision 
are observed in regard to all the arrangements. To avoid mis- 
takes, the invitations should be very precise as to date and 
hour, and each should contain the name of the person for 
whom it is intended. If the party is to be small, the notes 
may be written; if large, printed forms may be used, with 
blank spaces for name, ^ate, and hour. 

Answers. — A dinner invitation must always be answered, whetner 
an answer is requested or not (see page 152V 


Model 1* — Written Invitation to Dinner. 

t^y^.^^^tt^ ^.yW. t^^&^-^t^ltiCt^us 4^^-^tr^ 

0*^ ^ 

4^4^ ^C/i^ui-u^^ ^fi.yfli, ^^&-fi^t4^94^ >^%(r4«Sf, 
c.X^^B^«« ^0 4l!4n, -€94^ -e^a^S^ ^ ^/^«^ 

Model 2. 
J|r. and J|rs. Jameg j^nsstU 

request the pleasure of 
Dr. and Mrs. Baldwin's company at dinner^ on Thunday 

February 24th, at six o'clock. 
lOSU WaintU Street. 

NOTES. 147 

Parties. — The simplest forms for invitations to parties are 
in the best taste. The following models will suffice : — 

Model 1* — Farty Invitation. 

SencUor and Mrs. Sprague request the pleasure of * cam- 

pany, on Thursday evening, December seventh, from eight to 
twelve o'clock. 

601 JS Street J WashingUm. R. 8. V. P. 

Model 2. — Party Irwitation. 

Mr. and Mrs. R. F. Lord request the pleasure of • com- 
pany, on Monday evening, Nov. 22d, at eight o'clock. 

Oieatnvt Orove. Soirie Danaante. 

Oarriages enter the wett gate. Antwer to be tent to MO WtUnut St, 

Model 3* — To Meet Visiting Friends, 

Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Oeorge request the pleasure of com- 
pany, on Friday evening^ November 19th, from eight to eleven 
o'clock, to m^t General and Mrs. Sherman. 
Broad and Walnut Sis., Philadelphia. 

Model 4. — Presidential Reception. 

The President of the United States requests the company of 

— at the Reception in honor of 

Sis Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands, on Monday 

evening, December IJ^th, at nine o'clock. 

Bucuiive Mansion. 

An invitation ftom the President is to be regarded as a command, and must not 
be declined except for imperative reasons. 

Model 5. — Birthday Celebration. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Matthews request the honor of com- 
pany to celebrate their 8on*s majority, on Wednesday evening, 
January fifth, 1876. 

IWS Arch St, B. 8. V. P. 

* Use the name of Ike pereon in written novea, ** -jowt " Vn -^xViAft^ vdm^. 


Childeen's Pabties. — Invitations to children's parties are 
written or printed on smaller sheets than those used for other 
invita,tion8. The following forms are appropriate, to be varied, 
of course, to suit circumstances : — 

Model 1. 

Moiter Harry Washington requests the pleasure of 

company on St. Valentine's Day, from ten. until four o* clock. 
Woodland Terrace^ Fibruary U. 

Model 2. 

MUs Mary Lee requests the pleasure of ccympany on 

Friday evening ^ December 10th, from five to ten o* clock. 
162U North Broad Street. 

Informal Beceptions. — Informal afternoon or evening entertain- 
ments or receptions are now becoming popular. The invitations to 
them are issued on cards instead of notes, and they will be more ap- 
propriately spoken of in the second chapter (see page 164). 

Balls. — By balls we do not mean private parties at which 
there is dancing, but those of a more public nature, generally 
held under the auspices of some club or society, and directed 
by managers appointed for the purpose. 

Model l.—Fite ChampUre. 
The honor of - - company is 

requested at Norwood on Tuesday, June j^th, at one o'clock. 
[Signed by the Committee of Arraneements.] 

Jf it rainf the lite vrill heporiponed until Thundaiy. 

Model It.— {Note or Card.) 

The pleasure of 

your company is requested at a 

on Wednesday evening, Feb. 17, 1865, at nine o*6losk. 

Continental Hotel. 

NOTES. 149 

Collegre and Society Anniyersaries. — These invitations 
are of a great variety of forms, and engravers almost exhaust 
their invention in making for them new and beautiful designs ; 
but in these as in other invitations, an elegant simplicity com- 
mends itself to a refined taste. They are printed on a sheet 
of heavy, fine note-paper, bearing at the top the monogram' 
of the college, often interwoven with the year of the class 
(for example, '76). In this is generally enclosed a card bear- 
ing the names of the orators, or of the class, and sometimes 
also the officers of the society or a programme of the exercises. 
These details may, however, be printed on one of the inside 

The person who sends the invitation generally encloses his 
visiting card, to convey his personal compliments. 

We give below a few forms, without attempting, however, 
to imitate the elaborate designs with which some of them are 
ornamentSd : — 

Model 1* — Jvmior Exhibition, Rutgers CoUege. 

[Printed on a square sheet in beautiful engraved script, as below, with Mon- 
ogram of the college initials and year of class.] 


Od an enclosed card half the size of the sheet, SM printed the natnti 
of the orators. 


Model St. — Commeneement. 
[MonogrAm : 8. C, 76; with motto, Fw imiia/orfior.l 


Model 8» — ComrMfncemeni. 

[Monogram, S. N. 8.] 

Compliments of 


Cbmmcncemen^ Exercises in the Normal Chapel, 

Tuesday, July 6th, at ten o'clock, A. M, 

Model 4* — Cowmencw%ent. 
The Class of '7J^ of the University of Pennsylvania reqned tht 

honor of your presence at 

Thursday, June 11th, at half-past three o'clock, P, M, 

Executive Committee. 
ffljffnofi hy the mpmh«»rR of the oommittee.l 



Miscellaneous. — We preeent below a few forms not em- 
braced in the foregoing classes. The first three forms are For- 
mal Personal Notes; that is, private notes written in the third 
person. The fourth is a funeral invitation. 


Mr. Summers would be pleated to 
have your company on Thursday, Sept. 
I5th, to visit the Park. 

Ckirriages vaiU he in roaiting at the 
Oontinental Hotel at four o'clock P.M. 
Continental Hotel. R. S. V. P. 


Mr. Chiekering solidls the honor 
of attending Miss Adams to the opera 
on Thursday evening next. 

Tuesday, Nov. 3. 
The bearer will wait for the answer. 

WiU Miss WhiU do Mr. Neal the 
honor to accompany him in a drive to 
Druid HUl Park this afternoon f If so. 
Miss White will please state what hour 
vnll he most convenient. 

Bamum's Hotel, 

Wednesday morning. May 4. 

Yourself and family are respect- 
fully invited to attend the funeral of 

MiBS Sabah Pbidkauz, 

from the residence of the Rev. J. L. VcU- 
landigtuim, on Saturday, the 29th inst., 
to leave the Jumse at two o'clock P. M., 
) and proceed to White Greek Church.*^ 
Newark, Dec. 27th . 

Familiar Notes. — If the parties are very intimate friends, 
the formal and ceremonious style may be dropped, and that 
of a familiar letter adopted, as in the following : — 

Saturday Morning, May IWh. 
Dear Fanny, 

We are going to Irving' s Cliff 
this afternoon for wild flowers. Will 
you oblige us hy making one of our lit- 
tle parly f If so, we wUl call for you 
at two o'clock. Do go. 

Tours affjeetionately, 

Please answer hy bearer. 


My dear Sir, 

If you can come next Sunday 
we shaU be equally glad to see you, but 
do not trust to any of Martin's appoint- 
ments in future. Leg of lamb as b^ore, 
at half -past four, and the heart of 
Lamb for ever- 

Yours truly, 

C Lamb. 
mth March, 1821. 

* In some places, where friendb cannot be notified through the daily papers, in- 
vitations to funerals are issued They are written or printed on note paper edged 
with black, and are enclosed in corresponding enji^Iopes. Plain white la QB«d 
by Friends, and Bomf times by others. 




Dear AlUop^ 

We are going to DaUton on 
Wedneaday. Will you eome tee the 
Uut of us to-morrow night— you and 
\ Mn. AlUop f- 

Tours trtUy, 

C. Lamb. 
) Monday Evening. 


Weexped Wordtwor th to- 
n^orrow evening. Will you look in f 
Chairlea Lamb. 
Rusaell ffoiiM, 


II. Acceptances and Regrets. 

Definitions. — Answers to invitations are of two kinds, — 
Acceptances and Regrets. An acceptance is an affirmative 
answer; a regret is a non-acceptance. 

When Necessary. — Wedding intitxitions and receptions do not 
require an acceptance, unless they contain the letters " R. S. V. P.** 
or their equivalent. Indeed, the same may be said of invitations to 
parties, balls, and other social entertainments, except dinners. A 
failure to answer is understood as a tacit acceptance. A regret must 
invariably be sent, in case of inability to attend. 

Dinners. — It is highly important that the entertainer should know 
exactly for how many and whom to provide. It may therefore be 
stated as a rule, that an invitation to dinner should be promptly ac- 
cepted or declined. After having accepted such an invitation, a per- 
son should not absent himself except for the strongest reasons; and 
if there should be such reasons, they should by all means be stated 
In a regret. 

" At Home " Invitations. — A distinction exists between a for- 
mal invitation in such words as " You are requested," etc., and an 
• At Home " reception card. The former is a positive request, but 
in the latter no invitation is extended ; tho recipient is merely noti- 
fied that should he be pleased to call he will be welcome. Hence such 
a card does not require any answer. 

How soon should an Answer be sent? — As stated above, 
a dinner invitation should be answered immediately. Invitations 
to weddings, receptions, balls, etc., should be answered, if an answer 
is required, not later than the third day. iShould. anything occur at 

N0TE8, 153 

the last moment to prevent attendance, a regret should be sent the 
day alter the party. 

To whom Addressed. — An answer should in general be ad- 
•Iressed to the person named within it; but the answer to a joint note 
trom a husband and wife {Mr. and Mrs. John Whife. for example), 
while it should contain within it a recognition of both, should be ad- 
dressed, on the envelope, to the wife alone (Mrs. John White), 

Should be Written. — Blank acceptances and regrets are some- 
times used, but they are not so elegant nor respectful as written an- 
swers. No one has occasion to write many such notes ; hence there 
can be no good reason for resorting to the use of blanks. 

Style. — Answers must correspond somewhat, in style, to the in- 
vitations, each being, of course, varied to suit the circumstances of 
the case. 

Beason of Non-attendance. — In a regret, it is more cour- 
teous and friendly to state a reason for non-attendance than to de- 
cline without an assigned cause ; and if a cause is ass'igned, it is bet- 
ter, socially and morally considered, to state a real and specific reason, 
rather than a feigned and general one. 

Forms. — The forms given below are in answer to forms of 
invitation given on preceding pages. But few forms are 
needed : — 

Model !• — Acceptance of a Dinner Invitation. 
(See Invitation on page 146.) 


Model 2. — Regret {Answer to same, Reason Stated). 

Model 8. — Regret (Reason not Stated). 

Mr. Watson regrets that he cannot accept Mr. Hawthome^i 
polite invitation for Thursday evening, March 28th. 
Tuesday, March 19th, 

Model 4> — Regret («»;« Invitation on page 1J^7) 
Mr. arid Mrs. Sherwin regret that on account of the sudd&n 
illness of one of their children, they are compelled to revoke their 
acceptance of Senator and Mrs. Sprague's hind invitation for to- 
morrow evening. 

ISiSHSt., Wednesday, Dec. 6. 

Model 5. — Acceptance [see page 147). 

Mrs. Woodward accepts the kind invitation of Mr. ana- Mrs. 

Matthews for Wednesda.y evening, Jan. 5th, and is happy to have 

the opportunity to congratulate them on the arrival of their son* j 

twenty -first birth-day. 

Tuesday, December 98th. 

Model 6. — Regret {see page 151). 

Miss Adams declines Mr. Chickering*s kind invitation vnth 
thanks. She is already engaged for to-morrow evening. 
Wednesday morning, Nov. Uth. 

NOTES. 155 

Model 7* — Aecq)tance {FamUiar Style, page 161). 

My dear Charlotte, 

J shall be delighted to go with you this aftemoo7i 
It is just siLch an opportunity as I have been wishing for. 



As elsewhere remarked (p. 136), notes or letters in the third 
person are appropriately used, not only in matters of cere- 
mony, as exemplified on the preceding pages, bnt also in any 
brief and formal communication — (1) between persons, whether 
equal or unequal, who are but slightly, if at all, acquainted, 
and (2) between persons of unequal social or official position. 
These latter uses we proceed to illustrate. 

Date. — It is usatd, in this country, to date third-person letters or 
notes at the bottom; but they are sometimes dated, especially iu 
England, at the top, as in the first and second examples given below. 

Model 1. 

Admiral the Earl of Hardwick to Admiral Farragai. 

ISth July, Sidney Lodge. 

Admiral the Earl of Hardwick presents his compliments to 

Admiral Farragut, and begs to say that he is now resident at the 

above address. He is lame, and has difficulty in boarding ship, 

or he would wait in person on Admiral Farragut. The Earl of 

Hardwick hopes that he rriay be able in some way to gain Admiral 

FarraguV s friendship. 

Admiral Farragut, U. 8. Navy, 

Model 2. 

Lord Boflse (owner of the great fioBse telescope) to Madame , thanking 

her f6r a book. 

The Castle, Parsonstoum, December '22, 1856. 
Lord Rosse presents his compliments to Madame — , and 
u mu4:h obliged for the copy of her book, which she has been so 
good as to send him. He has had the book but a short time in hik 


possession, and of late he has been much engaged, so that he has 
been unable to read it regularly through; but he has examined U 
with sufficient care to be enabled to say, that it is particularly weU 
calculated for the object she has in view. The leading fa^As of 
astronomy, up to the present time, are accurately and clearly 
stated; and in selection of materials, in arrangement, and in style^ 
the work appears to him to be the best elementary work he has 

Model 8. 

Mr. Rogers regrets that he was absent when Mr. Moore called^ 
and hopes that Mr. Moore vrill mention a time when it wxU he 
convenient for him to meet Mr. Rogers, 

Brighton, June 16th. 

Model 4« 

The Librarian of the Mercantile Library vrUl please to send 
Miss Powell, by the bearer, the first volume of Irving' s '*I/ife of 

19U Arch St., June 15th. 

Model 5* 

Will Messrs. Hawk <& Wetherbee oblige Miss Blair by givihg 
the bearer the trunk corresponding to the accompanying check f 
New York, Map 96, 1876. 

Model 6.— lb a Servant. 

Mrs. Dawson desires Bridget O'NeU to go to her house to- 
morrow morning, and put it in order to receive the family in th€ 

Orange, FHctay^ Sqpt, Ut. 

Such a note may be appropriately written partly in the third and 
partly in the second person. In such cases, the superior, or the one 
assumed to be such, is always mentioned in the third person, whether 
writing or written to. Of course an equal, or even a superior, may 
through politeness or modesty assume inferiority, as is often done 
when a person subscribes himself, " Your obedient servant." Id 
accordance with this principle, the above note (Model 6) might be 
properly expressed thus : — 

N0TE8. 167 

Model 7. — {Second and Third Persons.) 


Mrs. Dawson desires you to go to her house to-morrow 

moiling and pvi it in order to receive the fa/mily in the evening 
Orange, FHiay, Sept. 1st. 

The following note is another application of the same principle 
This form of note is perfectly correct, but is rarely used, probably 
owing to the skill required in writing it. It is the only kind of for- 
mal note that admits of a signature. 

Model S» — (First and Third Persons.) 

Will Mr. Winthrop be so good as to favor me loith a line 
stating in what manner and with what sticcess I discharged my 
duties while serving as tvior in his family f Such a certificate, 
if as favorable as I have reason to expect, may be of great use to 
me in procuring a desirable situation. 

Hoping that Mr. Winthrop will comply with my request cw 

soon as convenient^ I remain. 

His obedient and humble servant, 

James Marshall. 
BoHon, Jan. 10, 1876. 

In closing a note written in this manner, it would not do to- say 
" Tour obedient," etc.. as that would be changing from the third to 
the second person. (See " Difficulty," page 136.) 


I. Superscription. 

Ceremonial Notes* — Notes of invitation should bear upon 
the envelope (the inner one, if two are used) only the name and 
title of the person invited. Thus, the note on page 141 would 
be addressed, Mr. John Hall. This superscription should be 
written, as on ordinary lett.er8, a litjle below the centre of the 
envelope. The word Present, or Addressed, formerly written 
nnder the name, is no longer so used. 

In notes intended for a married couple, a distinction may be 


ob8erved, in regard to the superscription, between those that 
are printed and those that are written. In the former, your i' 
used instead of the names ; hence the envelope must be addressed 
to bot6 ; as, Mr. and Mrs. John Sail. In the latter, the names 
are mentioned in the note ; hence it is allowable, and generally 
preferable, to address the envelope to the wife only. 

If an outside envelope is used, it may have upon it the full 
address of the person to be invited. (See page 57, et aeq.) 

Acceptances and regrets are addressed like other ceremonial 
not^s. It is not required that they be enclosed in extra enve- 
lopes, though there is no impropriety in so enclosing them. 

Miscellaneous Notes. — Personal and familiar notes, like 
most of those on pages 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, are enveloped 
and superscribed in the same manner as ordinary letters. 

11. Delivery. 

Notes addressed to persons living in another town or city 
are of course sent by mail, like ordinary letters, and it is be- 
coming customary to send them in the same manner to persons 
living in a distant part of the same city. Usually, however, 
they are delivered by private messenger. 


Write, fold, and superscribe notes in accordance with th« 
data and directions given below. 

Wedding Invitation and Answers. 

1. Miss Lamb's parents invite Mr. and Mrs. Sower to the 
marriage of Sarah Lamb to William Wolfif, at home. Write the 
invitation in four forms : (a) Without cards ; (6) with reception 
card ; (c) with reception and personal cards ; (d) with personal 
cards (the reception invit^ion being contained in the note). 

2. An acceptance of the above invitation. 

3. A non-acceptance or regret. 

NOTES. 159 

Invitation to Dinner^ and Answers to the same. 

1. Mr. and Mrs. John Clark invite Mr. Charles Brooks to 
dinner at a certain time, requesting an answer. 

2. Mr. Brooks's acceptance of the invitation. 

3. Mr. Brooks's non-acceptance. 

InvitaHon to a Partyy and Answers. 

1. Mr. and Mrs. James Baldwin invite Mr. and Mrs. Clark 
Bell to an evening party. 

2. An acceptance of the invitation. 

3. A non-acceptance. 

InoUation to a Bail. * 

An invitation to Mr. Harry Lightfoot to attend a ball at tha 
Assembly Rooms, in honor of Washington's Birthday. Signed 
by the managers. (Supply names.) 

Invitation to a School or College Anniversary. 

An invitation to attend the next commencement exercises 
of your institution, or the anniversary of a literary society ; 
enclosing a card containing the (supposed) names of the par- 
ticipants, or the order of exercises. 

Invitation to a Lady to attend a Lecture, with Answer. 

1. An invitation to a lady to attend a lecture by Mr. Gongh 
at a certain time and place. 

2. An acceptance. 

3. A non-acceptance. 

Order for a Carriage. 

A note in the third person (or second and thircl) to Jamat 
Roberts, requesting him to send a carriage to your house at 
a certain time, to take two passengers and one trunk to the 
railroad depot. 


I. Introduction. 

' iCeremonial. 

II. Kinds. . 


Professional and Official. 



Importance* — A card, wliich, in its simplest form, is merely 
" a bit of pasteboard with a name upon it," may at a superficial 
glance seem to be a very trifling affair ; and yet it plays an im- 
portant part in social intercourse. This importance arises 
from its representative capacity. As a bank-note, worthless 
in itself, represents so much gold or other valuable commodity ; 
so a card is accepted in many cases as a substitute for the per- 
son whose name it bears, and carries with it whatever influ- 
ence attaches to that name. 

Bbmabk.— It is not possible to give in this work a complete explanation of tb* 
▼arious uses of cards ; nor is such an explanation desirable, as it belongs to eti- 
qnette rather than to letter-writing. Indeed there are some things connected 
with the subject whicii cannot be learned in books: they belong to those " graces 
oeyond the reacli of art," which are learned only in society, among those " to the 
manner born." The leading points, however, are capable of being expressed in 
writing and reduced to something like a social code. And such a code is greatly 
needed, not only to inform those who have enjoyed but limited opportunities of 
social culture ; but also to reconcile conflicting opinions, even among those who 
move in the highest circles. We do not aim to do all that may be done in thic 
ilirection : our principal business is to treat of the /omu Af the various kinds of 
cards ; but we shall also endeavor to give, under appropriate heads, such informa> 
tion coDcerniug their use as the scope of our work will allow. 

CARLS. 161 

Kinds. — Cards may be divided into four classes: I. Cee- 


IV. Business. 


Use. — Cards may be used to convey invitations to weddings, 
receptions, parties, etc. ; and, indeed, for most of the purposes 
for which billets are employed. Notes, however, are generally 
preferred if the occasions are formal and important ; also for 
acceptances and regrets. 

Materials. — Quality. — The material used is the finest Eng- 
lish card board, unglazed. 

Color. — For weddings, only pure white is allowable. For othei 
occasions, delicate tints are allowable, but are not much used. 

Size. — Cards of ceremony are generally large — about 3 by 6 
inches — nearly the size of a postal card. 

Envelopes. — Cards are enveloped, superscribed, and delivered 
in the same manner as notes. (See pages 137 and 157.) 

Forms* — But few forms are necessary, as most of those given 
for notes (especially the shorter ones) are equally suitable for 
cards. The following will suffice : — 

Invitation Card* 

[About two-thirds the original size.] 

BuRD OsPH&N Asylum 


The Hector, Wardens, and Vestrymen invite you to be 

present at the Asylum cm *' Foundee's Day," Thursday, 

June 5th, 187S, at three o'clock. 

65th d- Market Streets. 




Invitation Cards. — Miscellaneous. 
[These models are a little less than one-third the original size. J 

|@:r. ^ 3t». 8. S. Sattmon'f 

Saturday Evening Club. 

ComplimenU,* requetting the plecuure 
of your company on Tuetday evening, 
February thirUeiUli, 1866. 

S. & V. P. 1520 Qirard Av, 

fletuure of ^- oon^pany, 

on Saturday eoening nest, 
at eight o'clock. 

The favor of an answer u requeeted. 


Mr. <& Mrs. Gary 

3^t gome 

Wedneaday, Sq>tember twenty-ninth, 

from two untU four o'eloek. 

19 EoKt Uth Street, 

Mr. George W. <^Udi requeete the 

pleature of eos^Nii^, 

on Saturday, March 9th, 1^ to meet 
the Freeident of the United Statee. 



Wedding Cards. — Wedding invitations are generally printed 
on note-paper. Most of the fbrms given m the preceding chap- 
ter — especially the shorter ones — may, however, be printed 
apon cards. Of the cards generally enclosed in a wedding in- 
vitation, we have already spoken. The size of these is a mat- 
ter of taste. The reception card is generally larger than the 
personal cards, and the gentleman's card is a little larger than 
that of the lady. The personal cards contain, respectively, the 
names of the parties, and nothing more. 

Betrothal Cards* — Among the Hebrews it is customary to 
announce betrothals. For this purpose notes or cards may be 
used. The following is a good form : — 

Mr. JBerijamin Hollander, 
Miss Rebecca Baum, 

January aixieerUh, 1876. 

*The use of the word eompliment* iii iuvitatious is not now considered in good 



Or, thtee cards may be used : a small one bearing the word 
Betrothed, a larger one bearing, near the lower right hand 
corner, the lady's name, and a still larger one bearing, in a 
similar position, the gentleman's name ; the three to be tied 
together at the upper edge i/^ith a white satin ribbon. 

Presentation Cards. — A card is a very neat and conve- 
nient substitute for a note, bo accompany a book or any other 
gift; or for a Christmas or New Year's greeting. For ex- 
ample : — f 

Mrs. Bovligiyy sends her Christituu 
greetings to Mr. Leslie, and begs his ae- 
cq>tance of the accompanying trifle, as a 
token of her regard. 

Christinas, 1875. 

Mem6rial Cards. — It is customary in England, and partially 
so in this country, to send Memorial Cards to the friends of the 
deceased. Such cards have a black border, — narrow for the 
young, wide for the aged. The following is a good example :- 

in ittemorg of 




iVe»Jd<n< of the United Stata of Ameriea. 

Bom February 12, 1809 ; 
Died. ApHl 15, 1865. 


*JJter life's fUful fever he aleqpe toell. 

Memorial Cards should be sent out about & ^««k «Aax XVv% Ivixi^ti^. 



Informal Reception Cards*— Informal Afternoon or Even- 
ing Reeeptions are now frequent in our large cities. The invita- 
tions are on cards inscribed somewhat as follows : — 

Mr, <fe Mrs, John L. Woods, 

Thursday, January sixth. 
From three HU eix o'eloek. 

250 N. CharUe SL 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Moore, 

TlwTeday Eoeninge. 

I«r2 Cheetnut Street, 

Answers. — To these informal invitations no reply is expected. In 
general, the custom with respect to answers is the same, whether in- 
vitations are given by note or card. (See Acceptances and lUgrets, 
page 152.) 


IiTTKODUCTOBT REMARK.— Visiting cards are so &miliar as not to need descrip- 
tion. Their uses, however, are not so well understood. To say that they are used 
in visiting, as their name indicates, is not enough ; the question arises, Mcno are 
they used in visiting? This is a difficult question to answer, as it involves many 
fine points of social etiquette, concerning some of which the leaders of society in 
different cities hold different opinions. Without stopping to discuss disputed 
points, we give as briefly as possible those uses which seem to have the sanction 
of the best social authority, as derived, not from books, but fiom society itself. 

Uses. — The chief uses of visiting cards are the following : — 

1. Ih announce a visitor^ s name. 

On making a call, a card is handed to the person who opens the door, and the 
caller inquires for the person or persons for whom the visit is intended. 

If the person called on is "not at home," the caller leaves a card, turning 
over one end or side, to denote a call in person. If there is a visitor with the 
'kmily, two cards bhould be left, one for the family and the other for the visitor; 
^Y, one card may be left, with the right end bent or creased.* A young lady 
calling on a family where there are elderly as well m young ladies leaves two 
cards. A married lady ordinarily leaves but one card, but when the lady visited 
lius a daughter who had just gone into society, she leaves two cards. 

2. To ai nounce a guesVs name at a reception. 

When a person attends a reception or party, he should always hand his card tc 
the usher at the door. A card should also be left in the card receiver. 

* In some cities the former method prevails; in some, the latter; in others, 
bfjtb. A person must conform to the custom of the nociety in which he livas. 

CARDS. 166 

3. To represent the owner in making calls. 

Society exacts formal vitiU on certain occasions, as, for example, after an in« 
▼itation to a dinner, or other ceremonious entertainment; on any occasion 
deemed worthy of personal congratulation or condolence; on the return of a visit- 
ing acquaintance to his residence; and on the arrival and stay of a visitor at the 
house of a friend : and such visits should be paid within a few days — not longei 
than a week— after the event. But for ordinary calls a card is by common con 
titf nt accepted as a substitute for the person. 

4. To announce a departure from home. 

A person living in a city, on leaving for any considerable stay, sends to his 
friends a card having P.P. C. (pour prendre congi, to take leave) on one of the 
lower corners. 

5. To announce a return home. 

It is customary and proper to announce a return to the city by sending cards to 
visiting flriends, with the address, if need be, and the reception days. 

6. To express congratulation and condolence. 

As above stated, a personal visit is required when there is occasion for congrat- 
ulation or condolence, but if the person visited is not at home, a card is left, on 
one comer of which is written the word Congratulation or Condoleneet as the case 
may require. (The object of the visit was formerly denoted by the turning down 
of a certain corner; but this stiff mechanical practice is happily discontinued.) 

7. As a substitute for a note of non-acceptance. 

A visiting card with the word Regret written upon it is sometimes, though Im- 
properly, sent to denote the non-acceptance of an invitation. 

8. To accompany a letter of introduction. 

A gentleman in a strange city with a letter of introduction, should always send 
his card, bearing Aw temporary address, with the letter, both enclosed in an en- 

9. To make known one's nxime to a stranger. 

A person who wishes to make himself known to another, whether for friendly 
or unfriendly purposes, hands him a card. 

10. To serve as a credential, or certificate of authority. 

A person sometimes hands another his card, with a written endorsement or 
introduction on it, to give him credit, in a certain matter, with those to whom 
the bearer is unknown. 

These are the principal and essential uses of cards, and they 
are sufficient to show that these " bits of pasteboard " are 
almost indispensable in modern social life. The other uses are 
such as a pernon's good sense will suggest as ihe occasions 


The Inscription.— The inscription consists of the name 
alone, or the name and the residence. When the latter is 
given, it is put in very small letters in the lower right-hand 
comer. If -a lady receives on a certain day, she indicates it in 
the lower left-hand corner ; thus, " ThurtdayB*^ or " Tuesday* 
and Fridays,*' as thi case may be. 

Titles.* — A title may or may Dot be used, according to the taste 
of the person. The social titles used are Mr., Mrs., and Miss. A man 
and his wife sometimes use a joint card, inscribed Mr. and Mrs. Blank, 
Chief JusHee and Mrs. Drake, as the case may be. A married lady, 
if her husband be living, uses her husband's name instead of her own ; 
as, Mrs. Dr. John Williams. If a lady visits in company with her 
daughter, a card may be used containing both names, — the daughter's 
being placed about half an inch lower than the mother's. When 
there are two or more daughters in society, the card of the eldest is 
inscribed, for example, Miss FairehUd ; those of the others, JAm Jane 
FairchUd, Miss Mary Fairchild, etc. Sisters visiting together often 
use a common card, inscribed, e. g.. The Misses Fairchild. 

Clergymen, physicians, and dentists use their professional title, 
instead of Mr. (see models), and their cards may be used both for 
social and professional purposes. 

Persons occupying high positions in the civil, military, or naval 
service, annex or subscribe their official rank or title (see models). 
The cards of such persons, like those of professional gentlemen, serve 
a double purpose. Persons never assume the title of Honorable on 
their cards ; nor do they use scholastic titles, except those that are at 
the same time professional. 

Style. — Visiting cards vary in size to suit the caprices of 
fashion, or individual taste. Ladies' cards are generally a 
little larger than gentlemen's. They must be perfectly plain, 
both as to material and inscription. A refined taste discards 
all ornaments, whether embossed, printed, or written. The 
most elegant cards are engraved or written ; those printed from 
type are not used by the most fashionable people. The letter- 

* See the article on Appellative Titles in Part III. 



ing generally used is the " English round-hand," or the " angu- 
lar script." Old English also is frequently used for the name 
and title. Persons in mourning use a card with a hlack 

Models* — We give below a number of^modele copied from 
actual cards, to illustrate the various peculiarities above-men- 
tioned : — 

Models of Visiting Cards* — {Dimianithed Size.) 

i/tM Thomson. 


Dr. & Mrs. Bobert Pearson. 

32U Qreen 8L 

Mrs, Edward T. Beale. 
The Misses Beale. 

Eliza Jackson, 1£. D. 

2H WmisHkSt. 

SItlltmn 9ennett. 

CMtfagn/A qffUm, U. & A. 

William ii^trong, 

AuoeiaU Justice aupreme Oowrt U. & 




These are cards used by professional men and officers, mainly 
for professional and official purposes. In many cases, how- 
ever, the same cards may be used for social purposes also (see 
page 166). Such cards contain, in addition to the person's 
name, his professional or official title or designation.* Three 
()f the forms given above are examples of professional and 
official cards. We give in addition the two following : — 

M- .has 

an appointment vnth 
C. A. KiNQSLEY, M. D., D, D. S., 

on -. at o'clock. 

u» Walwui St., 

John G, Nicolat, 

Marshal of the Supreme Court 

oj the United States. 


These are card* used by business men, to show their kind 
and place of business. Some are handsomely engraved, but 
they are generally printed from ordinary job type. No exam- 
ples are needed ; nor is it necessary to make any remarks in 
regard to them, except to suggest that they should be neat and 
tasteful. This suggestion may indeed be made in regard to 
anything that is intended for the public eye. It should be 
remembered that people have an aesthetic nature, as well as an 
intellectual ; and that they are therefore influenced, not only 
by what is useful, but often, in an equal degree, by what is 
ornamental and agreeable. Business men, therefore, if they 
would consult their own interests, should take advantage of 
tliis fact, and appeal in their cards, as well as in other respects, 
to the taste, no less than the judgment, of the public. 

* See Title$, page 166 ; also the article on Titles, in Part III. 





1. Rules poe Foeming Deeivatives. 

2. Special Kules. 

3. Rules foe the Use of Capitals. 

Remaee.— No person can become a good speller by rule. Most 
rules are subject to so many exceptions; that it is generally easier to 
learn to spell words by direct study, than to learn all the rules and 
exceptions that apply to them. The following, however, being of 
wide application and subject to but few exceptions, have been found 
to be exceedingly valuable: and we therefore recommend that they 
be thoroughly learned, and carefully applied in practice. (See our 
remarks on spelling, pages 73, 74, 75.) 

RULE L— Silent E Final. 

Part I. J5J final is rejected when a suffix beginning 
with a vowel is added ; as, blame + aJ)le = blamable. 

* The rules are taken, in substance, from the author's book en- 
titled Three ITumsand Practice Words, published by Eldredge & 
Brother Philadelphia. 



BzceptionB. — E is retained : 1. After c or g when followed by 
a or 0, as in changeable, peaceable; 2. After o, as in shoeing ; 8. When 
it is necessary to preserve the identity of the word, as in svoingeing, 
singeing, dyeing, tingeing. 

^ Part IL -27 final is retained wlien a suffix beginning 
with a consonant is added ; as move + ment ^ movement 

ExceptioxiB. — IhUy, truly, wholly, awful, nursUng, wisdom, 
abridgment, argument, acknowledgment, judgment, lodgment (some- 
times spelled lodgement). 

RULE IL— Y Final. 

Part I. If y final is preceded by a consonanif it is 

changed to i when a suffix is added ; as, merry + ly 

-= merrily. 

BzceptionB. — 1. Y is changed to e in beauteous, bownteous, du- 
teous, piteous, plenteous. 2. Y is not changed in derivatives of dry 
(except drier, driest), shy, sky, sly, spry, wry. 3. Y is not changed 
when the suffix begins with i, as in trying. 

Part II. If y final is preceded by a vowel^ it is not 
changed when a suffix is added ; as, boy + hood — boy- 

Exceptions. — Day, daily ; lay, laid, lain; pay, paid; say, saith, 
said; slay, slain; stay, staid; with their compounds. 

RULE III— FntAL Consonant. 

Part L A single final consonant is doubled on 

adding a suffix, when it is preceded by a single vowel, 

and the suffix begins with a vowel, and the accent is 

on the last syllable ; as, fop + ish -= foppish ; begin' + ing 

= beginning. 

Examples. — 1. Add ed to prefer'. Here r is preceded by a single 
vowel (e), the suffix (ed) begins with a vowel, and the accent is on the 
last syllable (fer); hence r must be doubled; thus: prefer + ed^ 


2. Add ing to het. Here t is preceded by a single vowel (e), and 
the saffiz {i'ng) begins with a vowel; hence t must be doubled ; thus: 
bet + ing = betting. 

Bxceptions. — ^1. The letters z, k, v are never doubled. 2. S in 
derivatives of gas is not doubled : as, gas + «« = ga^es. 

Part II. — The final consonant is not doubled on add- 
ing a suffix, if it is not preceded by a single vowel, or if 
the suffix does not begin with a vowel, or if the word is 
not accented on the last syllable ; as, cheat + ed^ cheated; 
prefer' + ment '=pre/e7*ment ; hen'efit + ed = benefited. 

Examples. — 1. Add ed to cheat. Here t is preceded by a double 
vowel (diphthong) ; hence it is not doubled on adding ed, and cheat + ed 
= cheated. 

2. Add ment to prefer. Here the suffix does not begin with a 
vowel ; hence r is not doubled, and prefer + ment— preferment. 

3. Add ing to profit. Here the accent is not on the last syllable ; 
hence t is not doubled, and profit + ing = profiting. 

Exceptions. — 1. From tranquil, contrary to rule, we have iran- 
tpAillity ; (rom crystal, crystalline; {rom filial, filially. 2. Many wri- 
ters also double the final consonant on adding a suffix beginning with 
a vowel to travel, level, bevel, cancel, marvel, worship, kidnap, and 
several similar words; as, travelling, levelling, bevelled, cancelling, 
Tnarvellova, worshipper, etc. This is the only spelling of these words 
authorized by Worcester. Webster allows this spelling, but prefers 
traveling, leveling, etc., in accordance with the rule. 



L Words Containing ei or ie (sound of e). 
JEi is used after the sound of s, as in ceiling ^ seize ; 
except in siege, and a few words ending in der. In- 
veiglcj neither j leisure, and weird, also Lave ei» 
In other cases ie is used, as in believe, achieve, 

' NdTE. — In German words, ei always represents the sound of t, ai 
in Steinman; and ie represents the sound of «, as in Siegd, 

II. Words Endino in oeous or oious. 

Words relating to matter, end in ce(ms, as herbaceous; 
all others in cious, as loquacious. (Silicious, an apparent 

exception, is sometimes written siliceous.) 



Form the derivatives indicated below, and explain 
each operation ; also fill the blanks. 

Love + ing, move + able, shame + ful, excel + iiig, benefit +ed, 
debate + able, peace + able, play + ful, apply +ed, apply +ing, 
beauty + ous, hoe + ing, refer + ing, true+ ly , waste + ful, waste + 
ing, fit + ing, perform + ing, commit -i- ing, commit + sient, 
stop + ed, strive + ing, charge + able, outrage + ous, hot + est. 

Under Special Rvles ; gr . . ve, s . . ze, retr . . ve, cone . . ve, 
ch . . ftain, b . . zing ; argillac . ous, grac . ous, spac . ous, fari 
nac . ous, mendac . mis, meretric . ous, carbonac . ous. 

M DPELS. — 1. Form a derivative of love by adding ii^g. Love ends 
in silent e and the suffix begins with a vowel ; hence e is rejected 
according to Rule I. Part I. (repeat the rule), and the derivative i« 
spelled, l-ov-i-n-g. 

2. Form a derivative of excel by adding ing. The final consonant 
of excel is preceded by a single vowel, the suffix begins with a vowel, 
and the word is accented on the last syllable; hence I is doubled M 
cording to Rule III. Part I. (repeat the rule), etc. 



[For the method of capitalizing the heading, introduction, ocn elu- 
sion, and superscription of letters, see the sections treating of these 
parts, and the accompanying models. See also the remarks on cap- 
itals, page 76.] 

Bule I. Every sentence should begin with a capital. 

Rnle !!• Every line of poetry should begin with a 

Rnle III. Every quotation that forms a sentence 
should begin with a capital ; as, Pope says, ** Whcdever 
w, is righV 

Rule IT. Words denoting the Deity should begin 
with a capital ; as, ** Trust in Providence^ 

Most writers of the present day capitalize also personal pronouns 
referring to the Deity ; as, •' Trust in Him who has power to save." 

Rnle y. Proper nouns and titles should begin with 
capitals ; as, ** The work is by Prof, John Pushin^ 
A, M.J of Oxford, England^ 

In geographical names composed of a proper and a common noun, 
such as Ohio river, New York city, we should capitalize only the first 
part, because the first part may be used alone ; but in such names as 
Jersey City, Rocky Mountains, etc., both parts must begin with caj i- 
tals, because both are necessary to describe the place. 

Rule yi« Proper adjectives should begin with cap- 
itals; as, "the French people"; "the Pepublican 
party"; "the Methodist church"; "the Greek ku- 

Rnle yil. Names of things spoken of as persons 
should begin with capitals ; as, " Jocund Day stands 
tip- toe on the misty mountain top." 


Bnle Tin. The important words in a heading should 
begin with capitals ; as, The book is entitled, " A Dic- 
tionary of the Noted Names of Fiction ". 

The " important words " are generally the nouns, adjectives, and 
verbs. Other words are capitalized when they are emphatic. 

Bnle IX. The names of the months and of the days 
of the week should begin with capitals. 

Names of the seasons do not begin with capitals unless they are 

Rule X. The pronoun / and ,the interjection 
should be capitals. 


Copy the following sentences and supply the capitaifi 
where they are required by the foregoing rules : — 

1. the following lines are from an ode by coUins : — 

" there honor comes, a pilgrim gray, 
to bless the turf that wraps their clay ; 
and freedom shall awhile repair, 
to dwell, a weeping hermit, there." 

2. the dying lawrence exclaimed, " don't give up the ship." 

3. the great shepherd will protect the lambs of his flock ; so 
his word assures us. 

4. he read the following selections: gray's "elegy in a 
country churchyard"; goldsmith's "deserted village"; anci 
browning's " how they brought the good news from ghent to 

5. they were married on monday, march 20th, in Ihe epuh 
eopal church, by the rev. mr. brown. 



Definition. — Punctuation (from the ljei>tin punctu/m, 
a point) is the art of dividing written composition by 
means of points. 

Note. — Punctuation is a comparatively modern art. A few pointa 
were introduced by Aristophanes, a Greek grammarian of Alexandria 
about 250 B. C. ; but punctuation as now practised was not generally 
known until about 1600 A. D., after the invention of the art of 

Use. — The chief use of punctuation is to divide writ- 
ten discourse into sentences, and show the relation and 
dependence of their several parts. 

A point is to some extent the expression or representation of a 
pause, as a letter is of a sound ; but it is not true, as we were 
taught in the old books, that the chief use of punctuation is to 
show where and how long the voice is to be suspended in 

A pause w often required where it would be wrong to place a 
point; as in the following line : — 

*• My words fly up ; my thoughts remain below." 

Here we must pause as long after words and thoughts as we 
do after up; but it would be absurd to represent these pauses 
by semicolons, or even by commas. 


And, on the contrary, a point is often required where ii wouia 
be wrong to make a perceptible pause; as in the expressions, 
" Come, John ;" " Yes, sir ;" " Oh, yes." 

Basis. — Punctuation is based upon grammatical an- ' 
alysis. A good analyzer will have little difficulty in 
learning to punctuate well; and the study of punc- 
tuation is to some extent a study of analysis. 

The Use of Bnles. — Rules cannot exhaust the sub- 
ject : they can render important aid ; but much must 
be left, after all, to the exercise of an intelligent judg- 
ment. The best rule, after having learned the relative 
value of the points, is the rule of common sense. Punc- 
tuation cannot be made a mere mechanical process; 
nor can a person ever learn to punctuate well by ear ; 
i. e., by observing the pauses in reading. 

Importance. — As we have shown elsewhere (see page 
81), a knowledge of punctuation is indispensable to the 
clear expression of thought in writing. Sometimea 
serious, and often ludicrous mistakes occur, on account 
of the omission or misuse of a point. Of the number- 
less illustrations of this truth that might be given, w€ 
select the following (see also the illustration on page 

Illustkatioks. 1. John Quincy Adams, when practising law, 
once gained a suit involving |50,000, the decision of which turned on 
the position of a comma. 

2. A tariff act was passed hy the XLIId Congress, providing that 
fruit-plants and certain other commodities should he admitted f^ee of 
duty ; hut it happened that in engrossing or printing the act, a comma 
was either accidentally or fraudulently inserted hetween " fruit " ano 
"plants." Accordingly all fruits and all plants were put upon the 



free list ; and this mistake (if mistake it was) cost the United States 
about two million dollars ! It required a special act of Congress to 
get rid of that mischievous and stubborn comma. 

[Sometimes ludicrous mistakes are made by bad punctuation ; as 
in the following:] 

3. Among the toasts drunk at a public dinner was this : " Woman 
without her, man would be a savage." It was printed, the next day 
thus : " Woman, without her man, would be a savage." 

4. The following notice was once read in church : " John Brown 
having gone to sea [see] his wife, desires the prayers of the congre- 
gation in his behalf." The comma should have been placed after sea. 

5. In the report of a clergyman's remarks on the increase of in- 
temperance, appears the following announcement : " A young woman 
in my neighborhood died very suddenly last Sabbath, while I was 
preaching the gospel in a state of beastly intoxication." A comma 
should of course be inserted after gospel. 

6. Punctuate the following lines so as to make them express ^ 
fact : — 

Every lady in the land 
Has twenty nails upon each hand 
Five and twenty on hands and feet 
This is true without deceit. 

Points Used. — The principal Points used are the fol- 
lowing : — 

The Period 

The Interrogation . . ? 
The Exclamation ... I 

The Colon : 

The Semicolon : 

The Comma , 

The Dash — 

The Curves () 

The Brackets ....[] 
Quotation Marks 

(( 99 

Note. — These points are sometimes classified as terminal (those 
used at the end of a sentence), interdaimal (those used between clauses 
or members), and interstitial (those used between parts of clauses) ; 
but as this classification is of no practical importance, it is not here 


Rules and Exercises. 
the period ( . ). 

Role !• A Period should be placed after every de- 
claratiye and every imperative sentence; as, "Truth 
is the basis of every virtue.** " Dare to do right.** 

NoTK — The word period means circmL It was first used to de- 
note the sentence, and is still so nsed in rhetoric The dot used to 
denote the completion of the period, afterwards, by metonymy, was 
itself called a period, the sign being pat for the thing signified. 

Rule IL A Period should be used after every ab- 
breviation; as, Prof., for Professor; C.O.D., for Cash 
on Delivery. 

BxceptJon. — An abbreviation pronounced as written is not fol- 
lowed by a period ; as. Bfn Butler, WiU Shakspeare. These are not 
really abbreviations, but nicknames. Benj. is the abbreviation of 
Benjamin ; Wm., of William. 

Note 1. Letters used to represent noinberB are followed by 
a period ; as, Book I., Chap. IV., p. 22. 

Note 2. The Arabic figures (1, 2, 3, etc.) are followed by 
periods when used to number sections, paragraphs, etc. ; as, 
" Three questions are to be considered : 1. What is it? 2. Where 
is it? 3. What is it for? (Notice the colon after " considered.") 


Copy the following, dividing it into sentences and, 
if necessary, into paragraphs, and using capitals where 
they are required : — 

Death is the king of terrors religion breathes a spirit of gen- 
tleness and affability a man cannot live pleasantly, unless he 
QV€8 wisely and honestly honor, ftlory, and immortality are 


promised to virtue the happiness allotted to man in his presftp* 
state is indeed faint and low, compared with his immortal pros- 
pects Wm C Bryant was born in 1794,he began to write versef 
when but nine years of age^he was educated at Williams col- 
lege, and afterwards studied law/ thanatopsis " was written in 
his nineteenth yea^this poem alone would establish the author's 
claim to the honors of a genius, dare to do right an honest man 
is the noblest work of God^ Henry W, Longfellow, w is born 
feb 27, 1807 he lives on brattle st, Cambridge, mass, the room 
above his study was at one time occupied by gen Washington 
as his bed chamber 

[The teacher may give several such exercises, if need be, writing 
them on the board, or dictating from a book, — taking care, however, 
in all cases, not to indicate, by voice or otherwise, where periods are 


Copy, punctuate, and capitalize the following : — 

. Chas I was beheaded A D 1649 hon j p Wickersham, LL D, 
state Supt, is the author of two valuable works : 1 School econ- 
omy ; 2 methods of Instruction the quotation may be found in 
Vol I, Chap VI, p 24 the work was written by Tayler Lewis» 
dd, Ud, prof of Greek in Union college *' rare ben Jonson ! " 


Rnle. — An Interrogation must be placed after every 
question; as. Who wrote "Snow-Bound"? 

Note. — An interrogation point generally, not always, marks the 
end of a sentence ; hence the following word generally, not always, 
begins with a capital; as, " The question, What do we live for? is a 
solemn one." Sometimes, by the omission of a common part, several 
questions are thrown together, so as to form one sentence ; in which 
case an interrogation must be placed after each question, because each 
requires a separate answer ; as, " Whence did. Vv% cornel V>I!C^ "^V^soA 


for what purpose?" When, however, the common part is reserred 
for the final question, but one interrogation is required ; as, " Whenoa 
with whom, for what purpose, did he come ? " This note is s .ic 
applicable to the exclamation point. 


Rule. — The Exclamation is used 'after every exprea- 
aion or sentence that denotes strong emotion ; as, " How 
are the mighty fallen ! " " Alas ! I am undone." 

Note 1. Interjections. — An interjection is generally followed 
by an exclamation. But when the interjection is onemphatic, 
it may be followed by a comma, or by no point at all; as, 
•• Oh, yes." 

Note 2. and Oh, — A distinction is to be observed in the 
use of and oli. The former we will call the ** vocative 0" ; 
and the latter, the " emotional oh." 

Vocative 0. — Vocative is used before a noun in excited 
address, and is not followed by any point; as, "0 Liberty!" 
•• my Country ! " 

Emotional Oh. — Emotional oh is chiefly used to denote wish- 
ing, suffering, surprise, or admiration, and is followed by an 
exclamation point or a comma ; as, (wishing) '* Oh, that he 
were here ! " (suffering) ** Oh ! I am ruined ; " (surprise) ** Oh ' 
b-»k there ! " (admiration) " Oh, how lovely I " 

Reference. — See the note under the interrogation point, page 181 
waich applies also to the exclamation. 


Copy the following, using interrogations, exclama- 
tions, periods, and capital letters, where necessary : — 

Where are you going I am going to lancaster will you stay 
for dinner I think so oh, how warm it is Alas my hopes are 


dead my people my brothers let us choose the righteous 
side grave where is thy victory death where is thy sting 
How lovely are the flowers can anything be more perfect 


Copy the following poetical extract, supplying points 
and capitals where they are required. 

[Do not change it in any other respect. The printed points in this 
and all subsequent exercises are correct. Only those points are to be 
tfupplied for which rules hav« been given.] 

Titinius These tidings will comfort cassius 

Messala Where did you leave him 

Tit All disconsolate 
With Pindarus, his bondman, on the hill 

Mes is it not he that lies upon the ground 

Tit he is not like the living my heart 

Mes is that not he 

Tit No : this was he, Messala ; 
But cassius is no more setting sun 
As in thy red rays thou dost set to-night, 
so in his red blood Cassius' day is set ; 
the sun of rome is set — Julius Gcesar 


fThsse points are introduced out of their usual order, because they 
ill be much needed in the examples and exercises thai are to follow.] 

Rnle. — Quoted, or borrowed, expressions must be 
enclosed in Quotation Marks ; as, Socrates said, '' I be- 
lieve that the soul is immortal^ 

Remark. — It matters not whether the quoted expression was 
spoken or written. A writer may use the marks even when he 
quotes words previously used by himself. 


Note 1. A quotation included in another is distinguished 
by single marks ; a second quotation included in this one, by 
double marks, and so on alternately ; as, — 

1. What a lesson is contained in the word " diligence" i 

2. Trfncb says, "What a lesson is contained in the word 'dil- 
igence ' ! " (Notice the position of the points at the end.) 

3. I find in Hart's Rhetoric the following sentence : " Trench says, 
' What a lesson is contained in the word " diligence " ! * " 

4. The teacher said, " I find in Hart's Rhetoric the following sen- 
tence : ' Trench says, " What a lesson is contained in the word ' dil- 
igence ! 

Remark. — It thus appears that several sets of closing marks may 
come together at the end of a sentence. When this is the case a little 
space must be preserved between them. The closing marks must of 
course be placed at the end of the quotation to which they belong, 
whether at the end of the sentence or elsewhere. 

Note 2. A quotation may be divided by other words, in 
which case each part must be enclosed in quotation marks; 

" Let me make the ballads of a nation," said Fletcher of SaltonU; 
" and I care not who makes the laws." 

Note 3. When successive paragraphs are quoted, marks are 
put at the beginning of each, but the closing marks are put 
only at the end of the last. 

Rule for Capitals. — See Rule III., page 175. 


Supply the omitted points and capitals in the follow- 
ing sent'Pn:*^: — 

1. The command, Thou shalt riot kill, forbids many crimes 
besides murder. 

2. It has been said, the command, thou shalt not kill, forbids 
many crimes besides murder. 

3. If, says Sir James Mackintosh,** you display the delights 


of liberality to a miser, lie may always shut your mouth by 
answering, 'the spendthrift may prefer such pleasures : I love 
money morA»» 

4. I ventured to congratulate him upon his coming back tc 
11 is home. '''Ah, sii^ he answered.^but to a home how altered — 
my family broken up, my kindred gone^^^These feelings about 
home are deep^, I murmured forth. Very deep, sir," he rejoined, 
and walked away. 

5. Some one has said; what an argument for prayer is con- 
tained in the words, *our father who art in heaven* "* 

6. He wrote upon the blackboard this sentence : some one 
has saidj^hat an argument for prayer is contained in the 
wordSj^'our father who art in heaverf'. * '^ 

THE COLON ( : ). 

Rule I. A Colon is used between parts that are sub- 
divided by semicolons. 

Remark. — This rule is the statement of a general prinoiple, but 
its application is seldom required — never, except in long sentences. 
It may be illustrated by the following figures : — 

(1) '. ; : . 

(2) ; : ; — . 

Ic analyzing such sentences, the parts separated by the colon arc 
called members. 

Rnle n. A Colon is used before a quotation, enum- 
eration, or observation, that is introduced by " as fol- 
lows, ' **the following," or any equivalent expressio!i. 

Remark. — Such an introduction is called /orTTiaZ. An informal 
introduction requires a comma, if the quotation is short. If the quo- 
tation consists of several sentences — a speech, for example — a colon 
must precede it, no matter how it is introduced ; as, Mr. Sumner ob- 
tained the floor, and said : (here follows the speech.) 


Formal Introduction : — 

1. He spoke as follows: " Mr. President, I rise," etc. 

2. The following persons were elected : Pres., John Williams, Vic^ 
fxes., James Carr. 

3. Be our plain answer this : The throne we honor is the people's 

Informal Introduction : — 

1. Lawrence said, " Don't give up the ship." 

2. The line, "The child is father of the man," was written ly 

Special Rule. — An easy and sure rule for determining 
whether an introduction is formal or informal is the follow- 

If, in reading, the introductwn takes, on the last word, the fall- 
ing inflection, it is formal, and requires a colon ; if it takes the 
rising inflection, it is informal, and requires a comma. 


Tell which of the quotations in the following stjii- 
tences are introduced fortnally, and which informally, 
and supply quotation marks, colons, and commas, where 
needed : — 

1 Remember the maximj Know thyselL 

2. Parse the following sentence'To see the sun is pleasant. 

3. Webster, when dying, uttered these words*! still livel' 

4. This was the motto of the celebrated Dr. Nott^Persever- 
ance conquers all things:' ^ 

6. Heaveni he cried my bleeding country sav^^ 

6. Patrick Henry exclaimed^ Give me liberty or give me 

7. The tomb bore this inscriptionJi am Cyrus, he who sub 
dued the Persian Empire!' 


• 8. The apostle thus gives expression to the intensity of his 
emotions !Uh, wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me 
from the hody of this death.? 

Rnle m. A Colon is used after a clause or member 
wliich is complete in itself, but is followed, without a 
conjunction, by some remark, inference, or explana- 


1. Let me ofier you my earnest friendship: you would laugh if I 
were to offer you more. 

2. I went to the glen betimes next morning: the book was gone, 
and so was my patience. 

3. Of these he should make himself master : he should " leave no 
enemies in the rear." 

4. To reason with him was vain : he was infatuated. 

[When the conjunction is expressed, a semicolon is used ; as, — ] 

5. To reason with him was vain ; for he was infatuated. 

Remark. — The colon, as used in the above examples, performs an 
office that can be performed by no other point, and yet an unskilful 
punctuator would have used a semicolon or a period in every in- 
stance. This use of the colon is one of the refinements of modern 
punctuation, and can best be learned by careful observation of the 
practice of our best authors. Instances of it abound in all our cor- 
rectly printed books and magazines. 

Note 1. When -the time of day is denoted by figures, a 
colon is put between hours and minutes; as, The train leavt? 
at 9 : 28 A. M. Sometimes a period is used instead of a colon 

Remark. — A colon is sometimes, though rarely, used between the 
numbers denoting chapter and verse in Bible references ; ^as, 2 Cor. 
15 : 54. (So used in Hart's Rhetoric.) A period is generally used. 

* This rule is taken from Wilson's Treatise on Punctuation, the 
best work on the subject in the language. 



There are thus three ways of writing Bible refereaces : 1 Kings xviit 
27: 1 King^ 18.27; 1 Kings 18:27. 

Note 2. Yes or No, in answer to a question, is generally 
toilowed by a colon, if the following words are a repetition of 
ihe answer ; as, " Can you do this ? " — " Yes : I have often done 
it." Some writers, however, prefer the semicolon. 

Remark. — If a noun follows yes or no. the colon must come aft^ 
the noun ; as, " Yes, sir : I will." " Yes, my lords: I am ready." 

Reference. — See Remark 2, page 190. 


Separate the following into sentences ; and use peri- 
ods, colons, quotation marks, and capitals, where needed ; 
also commas, where needed before quotations : — 

All oup, conduct toward men. should be influenced by this 
preceptfoft^nto othersjas ye would that others should do unto 
yoiLDo not flatter yourself with the idea of perfect happines^ 
there is no such thing in the world, the discourse consisted of 
two parts i^ in the first was shown the necessity of exercise; in 
the second, the advantages that would result from it All 
admire the sublime passage:*God said let there be lighi ; and 
there was lighi^Have you ever been to Washingtoni^ye^ sirjl 
once lived there. 


Rule I. A Semicolon is put between parts that are 
subdivided by commas ; as, — 

It is the first point of wisdom to ward off evil; and, since you ani 
not sure of a minute, throw not away an hour. 

* See Note 1, 6, p. 189. 


Eemare. — This is a very common use of the semicolon. It may 
be illustrated by the following figures : — 

(1) . ; , , . 

(2) : ; , . 

Rule n. The Semicolon is used between clauses or 
members that are loosely connected in sense, and be- 
tween the terms of any disconnected series of expres- 


1. Everything has its time to flourish; everything grows old; 
everything passes away. 

2. President, John Hall; Vice Pres., F. A. Lyon; Sec, Anna 

Note 1. a. A Semicolon may be used before an enumeration, 
when the items are separated by commas ; as, " I bought three 
books ; Aftermath, The Circuit Rider, and Little Women.'* 
Most writers, however, prefer a comma and a dash before such 
an enumeration ; as, " I have four studies, — Arithmetic, Gram- 
mar, Latin, and Literature." 

h. When the terms of an enumeration are separated by semi- 
colons, a colon must be used before it ; as, " I bought thi'ee 
books: Aftermath, by Longfellow; The Circuit Rider, by 
Eggleston ; and Little Women, by Miss Alcott." 

Note 2. When as, namely, or that is, is used to introduce an 
example or enumeration, a semicolon is put before it, and a 
comma after it. 


1. A noun is a name : as, Cincinnati, Gen. Sherman. (The above 
rules and notes afford numerous examples of this use of cm.) 
. 2. There are three cardinal virtues; namely, faith, hope, and 

3. Some animals are amphibious ; that is, they can live^on the land 
or in the water. 

H^Bwi- "^ -:--— .^- tclz.ij ir>i 'CsjbibIe i 

i-.T jr^if =:3iT»'a.-'J*v-ii(>a* of a bni 

THE couau. ( , ), 

• '- Co-crd:::*;* eJaases, and sabord^na 
-•■■^Te. are generally set off* by comni 

• **-!*•» hic. ^loH I li«»« always fonnd him tra 
*^ pwi sh*:: bf ««ided. but the wicked shall w 


I what 

preceoBs or to 


3. The good which you do will not be lost, though it may be 

Note 1. If clauses are short and closely connected, no point 
is required between them ; as, " Learning is better than riches 
{are)" ''John is playing and his mter is studying.** "The 
wicked flee when no man pursueth." 

Note 2. No point is allowable between a restrictive phrase 
or clause and the word which it limits, unless there are in- 
tervening words ; as, " Death is the season which tests our 

Explanation. — A clause is said to be restrictive, when it limits a 
particular word to a particular sense. Thus, in the sentence, " The 
boy who studies will improve," the meaning is not " The hoy will im- 
prove," but " The hoy who studies (i. «., the studious hoy) will improve." 
Hence the clause " who studies " is restrictive. Clauses that are not 
restrictive are called circumstantial. Thus, in the sentence, " John, 
who is a diligent student, knows his lesson," the clause, " who is a 
diligent student," is circumstanlMil, not restrictive. 


[This may be used either as an or&l or a written exercise.] 

Tell which of the clauses in the following sentences 
are restrictive, and which circumstantial, and insert 
commas where needed : — 

The flowers which bloom in spring, are most regarded. My 
favorite bird is the robin- which appears about the first of 
April. No man who is a real frien(L would speak so. The 
man who hath done this thingj shall surely die. The time 
when compromise was possible, has passed. This ma^ who is 
my frienc^ assures me of the fact. Every teacher must love a 
pupil who is docile. The child was much attached to his 
teacher who loved him dearly. Urbanity oft-en lends a grace 
to atctionsj that are of themselves ungracious. Study nature, 
whose laws and phenomena are all deeply interesting. Adopt 
a lifQk founded on religion and virtue. 


Bnle !!• The comma is used to set off transposed 

phrases and clauses ; as, — 

1. When the wicked entice thee, consent thou not. 

2. Biifore giving way to rage, try to find a reason foi being angry. 

Remark. — If the inversion seems easy and natural, no point 
is required; as, '* In this way he obtained the prize." 

Rule III. A comma is used to set off interposed 
words, phrases, or clauses ; as, — 

1. This, however, was not my purpose. 

2. Every passion, however base or unworthy, is eloquent. 

3. Let us send light and joy, if we can. to every one around us. 

Explanation. — "Interposed" means, placed between. An ex- 
pression is said to be interposed, when it is introduced somewhat 
abruptly between parts that are closely related. 


Punctuate the following sentences according to Rules 
II. and III. :— 

1. Of all our senses^sight is the most important. 

2. Christianity ia, in a most important sens&the religion of 

3. Charity ^on whatever side we contemplate it.ia one of the 
higliest Christian graces. 

4. Charity^ like the san brightens every object on which it 

5. Happiness ^^thereforey depends on yourself. 

6. Of all bad habit^ that of idleness, is the most incorrigible. 

7. Till we can go alone^we must lean on the hand of a 

8. He had^no doubt^great aptitude for learning languages. 

9. It is mind after all that does the work of the world, 

10. To mostireligion is a mere tradition. 


Rule IV. The comma is used between similar or 
repeated words or phrases ; as, — 

1. Earth, air, and water teem with life. (Similar words.) 

2. Live (yr die, sink or swim, survive or perish, I give my heart and 
my hand to this vote. (Similar pairs.) 

3. He lived in seclusion, in poverty, and in disgrace. (Similar 

4. Oome, come, come; I fear we shall be late. (Repeated words.) 

Explanation. — " Similar," as used here, means, " in the same 

Note 1. In a series of similar expressions, three cases may 
arise : — 

1. Where aU the conjunctions are expressed. 

2. Where all are omitted except between the last two. 

3. Where all are omitted. 

In the first of these cases no point is required ; in the second, 
all the terms are separated by commas ; in the third, all are 
separated by commas, and a comma is placed after the last to 
separate it from what follows.* These cases are illustrated in 
the following examples : — 

1. First Case. — We should live soberly and righteously and 
piously in the present world. 

2. Second Case. — We should live soberly, righteously ,f and piously 
in the present world. 

3. Third Case. — We should live soberly, righteously, piously, in the 
present world. 

* If the terms are adjectives, a comma must not be put between 
tbe last one and the noun it limits ; as, " He is an honest, industrious 


f Many persons improperly reject the comma between the last two 
terms when the conjunction is expressed. The method of punctuating 
here given is in accordance with nearly all recognized authorities on 
the subject, as well as with the usage of the best authors and pub- 
lishers. The reasons for it may be found in Wilson's excellent 
treatise, to which reference has already been made. 



Note 2. Two or more similar terms under Case Ist (Note 1) 
must Le separated by commas, If either of them has an adjunct 
or modifier that does not apply to the others; as, "Joseph 
woke, and thought upon his dream." 

In this example, " upon his dream" belongs to " thought," but not 
tc " woke." Without the comma, the sentence would mean, " Jcseph 
woke upon his dream and thought upon his dream" — an absurd ty. 


Use commas where they are required by Rule IV. 
and the notes under it : — 

1. The principal metals are gold silver mercury copper tin 
and lead. 

2. A man that is temperate generous reliant faithful and 
honest, may at the same time have wit humor mirth and good 
breeding. • 

3. Power riches prosperity are sometimes conferred on the 
worst of men. 

4. X^eath levels the rich and the poor the proud and the 
bumble the strong and the feeble the young and the old. 

5. Undue susceptibility and the preponderance of mere feel- 
ing over thoughtfulness, may mislead us. 

6. Can flattery soothe the dull cold ear of death ? (See first 
foot-note on p. 193.) 

Rule V. The comma is used to set off independent 

elements; as, "tToAw, come here, sir." 

U E.MARK. — This rule applies to — 

1. The nominative case independent; as, " I rise, Mr. Pnndmt, to 
a point of order." 

2. The nominative case absolute ; as, " The morning being dear, 

3. All uneraphatic interjection : as, "Oh, how pretty!" 

4. An independent adverb; as, " Well, how are you succeeding T" 


Bnle VI, The comma is used to set off an appositive 
element ; as, James McCosh, D. -D., is a distinguished 

Bemabe. — If the appositive is quite short,^-only a word or two, — 
DO commas are required ; as, " Paul the apostle was a man of energy." 


Punctuate the following sentences according to Rules 
V. and VI. :— 

1. Socrates the Greek philosopher never gave way to anger. 

2. Sir Isaac Newton the eminent astronomer was remark- 
able for his modesty. 

3. Charles V. King of Spain and Emperor of Germany died 
in a convent. 

4. Boy bring me my boots. 

5. The book was written by Francis Wayland D. D. LL.D. 

6. Shame lost all virtue is lost. 

7. Show pity Lord ! Lord forgive. 

8. Accept my dear young friends this expression of my 

9. The question What is beauty ? is hard to answer. 

10. Why how well you look! 

Rule Vn. A comma is placed at the end of a long 
compound or complex subject ; as, — 

1. Love for study, a desire to do right, and carefulness in the 
rlioice of friends, are important traits of character. 

2. He that places himself neither higher nor lower than he ought 
t do, exercises the truest humility. 

Remabe. — If the subject is very long, especially if it is subdivided 
by ]K>ints, a dash should be put after the comma. 

Rule Vin. A comma is generally used to mark the 
ellipsis of a verb or other important words ; as, — 

" Hurry is the mark of a weak mind ; despatch, of a strong one." 


Bnle IX* The comma is used to set off a short 
quotation informally introduced ;* as, — 

Agassiz once said, " 1 have not time to make money." 

Remaee 1. This rule applies to any remark or observation re 
sembling a quotation ; as, " An important lesson in education is 
Learn to distrust your own opinions." "Resolved, That women shall 
be allowed to vote." 

Remabe 2. An informal introduction generally ends with say, 
exclaim, remark, or some similar verb. Sometimes the quotation ii 
in apposition ; as, The maxim, '* Know thyself." should not be for- 

Bemabe 3. A divided quotationf requires two commas ; as, " Vir- 
tue," says Dryden, "is its own reward." 

Rule X. The comma is used to prevent ambiguity, 
and to give prominence to emphatic and contrasted 
parts; as, — 

1. He who teaches, often learns himself. (If the comma were 
omitted, the sentence would be ambiguous.) 

2. Strong proofs, not a loud voice, produce conviction. 

3. I remain, yours respectfully, John Smith. 

Note. — Phrases and clauBes that are placed at a distance 
from the word on which they depend, or that have a common 
dependence on several words, are preceded by a comma ; as, — 

1. No man can be a thorough proficient in navigation, who has 
never been at sea. 

2. I prepare those lessons which require the closest thinking, early 
in the morning. 

3. Law is a rtde of civil conduct, prescribed by the supreme powei 
in the state, commanding what is right, prohibiting what is wrong. 

* See Rule II. and Remark, page 185. 
fSee Note 2, page 184. 


4. He questioned me of the battles, sieges, fortunes, that I have' 
passed. {That refers equally to battles , sieges, and Jor tunes) 

5. We ought not to betray, but to defend, our country. {Betray 
and defend are in contrast, and our country is equally related to 
both ) 


Supply tke omitted commas and capitals in the 
following sentences : — 

1. "A faithful friend" it has been beautifully said "is the 
medicine of life." 

2. A new feeling of what is due to the ignorant the poor and 
the depraved has sprung up in society. 

3. We live in deeds not years ; in thoughts not breaths ; in 
feelings not in figures on a dial. 

4. Homer was the greater genius; Virgil the better artist. 

5. It is as great a breach of propriety to send an awkward 
careless badly written letter as it is to appear in a company 
of refined people with swaggering gait soiled linen and un- 
kempt hair. 

6. The books the pictures the statuary that were bought in 
Europe were all lost. [All the articles were bought in Europe.] 


Supply the omitted points and capitals, and give the 
rule for each : — 

1. The essence of poetry may be said to consist in three 
things invention expression and inspiration. 

2. View the path you are entering on with an enlightened 

3. Paul the apostle of the gentiles was a man of energy. 

4. I inquired how did you like the sermon John — Pretty 
If ell he replied but it was too long. 

5. Break break break on thy cold gray 6to\i«& O ^«^ 



6. Stones grow plants grow and live animals grow live 
and feel. 

7. Wordsworth's great work is the excursion bnt it is not so 
much admired as tintern abbey ode to dnty we are seven Incjr 
and other short poems. 

8. He who masters his passions conquers his greatest enemy 

9. Most of those who have nothing to do commonly do noth- 

10. A paper contains the following Advertisement wanted a 
room for a single Gentleman twelve feet long and six feet wide 

11. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year 
president William Wallace of salem vice president John Went- 
worth of boston secretary John greenleaf of Amesbury trea- 
surer henry wilson of natick executive committee John smith 
charles Williams and henry winslow all of boston. 

12. Flowers seem intended for the solace of ordinary human* 
ity children love them quiet contented ordinary people love 
them as they grow luxurious and disorderly people rejoice in 
them gathered they are the cottager's treasure and in the 
crowded town [they] mark as with a little broken fragment of 
rainbow the windows of the workers in whose hearts rests the 
covenant of peace. — Rusldn. 

THE DASH ( — ). 

Bnle !• Dashes may be used to set off a paren- 
thetical expression ; as, — 

" There was a pond — no, rather a bowl^-of water in the centre." 

Remark. — The dash — ^probably owing to its greater neatness and 
o>::;nvenience — has to a great extent displaced the curves, or paren> 
tr:>9sis; and the comma (see Eule III., p. 192) has a similar use. It 
may be stated that the commas in this use denote the least, the 
dashes the medium, and the curves the greatest degree of separation. 
Both the dsshes ^nd *h<» «nrvftR arft correotlv used in thia Keniark, 


Rnle II. The dash may be used to denote an inter- 
ruption or a sudden change of thought ; as, — 

1. " I knew I should find you at " — She cut me short by rising. 

2. Is it possible that my friend — but I will not suspect him of the 

Remark. — The dash sometimes denotes merely a significant 
pause ; as, " The best way to punish him is to — let him alone." 

Role in. The dash may be used to denote a sum- 
ming up of particulars ; as, — 

He has lost wealth, home, friends — everything but honor. 

Rule IT. The dash may be used to add effect to 
other points. 

Remark. — Two instances under thi;s rule — namely, the use of the 
dash before an enumeration (page 189, Note 1, a), and its use after a 
long subject (page 195, Rule VII., Remark) — have already been 
given. Among other uses may be mentioned the following : — 

1. After a side head. (See head of this Remark.) 

2. Between two quotations brought together in the same line ; as, 
•■ Are you ready ?"— " Yes." 

^ 3. At the end of an extract, before the name of the author or 
#ork ; as, — 

" The groves were God's first temples." — Bryant. 
4. After as, namdy, as follows, or other introductory word or words, 
when the example, quotation, or enumeration forms a separate para- 
graph. (Many illustrations of this use may be found on this and the 
]*reoeding pages.) 


Supply dashes where required in the following : — 

1. But there lies the source so at least I believe of my sor- 

2. But not one of them [the women] betrayed the mysterious 
something or other really, I can't explain precisely what it 
wtm I which I was looking for. Atlantic Monthly, 


There are thus three ways of writing Bible reforeaces: 1 Kings xviit 
27: 1 King> 18.27; 1 Kings 18:27. 

Note 2. Yes or No, in answer to a question, is generally 
I olio wed by a colon, if the following words are a repetition of 
the answer ; as, " Can you do this ? " — " Yes : I have often done 
it." Some writers, however, prefer the semicolon. 

Behabe. — If a noun follows yes or w), the colon mast come aftc)| 
the noun ; as, " Yes, sir : I will." " Yes, my lords: I am ready." 

Reference. — See Remark 2, page 190. 


Separate the following into sentences ; and use peri- 
ods, colons, quotation marks, and capitals, where needed ; 
also commas, where needed before quotations : — 

All ouiu conduct toward men. should be influenced by this 
preceptJow^nto othersjas ye would that others should do unto 
yoiiDo not flatter yourself with the idea of perfect happines^ 
there is no such thing in the world, the discourse consisted of 
two parts i^ in the first was shown the necessity of exercise ; in 
the second, the advantages that would result from it. All 
admire the sublime passageC^'God said let there be lighli ; and 
there was lights Have you ever been to Washington^ye^ Bifjl 
once lived there. 


Rule I. A Semicolon is put between parts that are 
subdivided by comma* ; as - 

It is the first point of wisdom to ward off evil; and, since you ara 
act sure of a minute, throw not away an hour. 

♦See Note 1,6, p. 189. 


Remabe. — This is a very common use of the semicolon. It may 
be illustrated by the following figures : — 

(1) . ; . , . 

(2) ■ ; . . 

Rule !!• The Semicolon is used between clauses or 
members that are loosely connected in sense, and be- 
tween the terms of any disconnected series of expres- 


1. Everything has its time to flourish ; everything grows old ; 
everything passes away. 

2. President, John Hall; Vice Pres., F. A. Lyon; Sec, Anna 

Note 1. a. A Semicolon may be tiaed before an enumeration, 
when the items are separated by commas ; as, " I bought three 
books; Aftermath, The Circuit Rider, and Little Women." 
Most writers, however, prefer a comma and a dash before such 
an enumeration ; as, " I have four studies, — Arithmetic, Gram- 
mar, Latin, and Literature." 

h. When the terms of an enumeration are separated hy semi- 
colons, a colon must be used before it ; as, " I bought thi'ee 
books: Aftermath, by Longfellow; The Circuit Rider, by 
Eggleston ; and Little Women, by Miss Alcott." 

Note 2. When a«, namely, or that is, is used to introduce an 
example or enumeration, a semicolon is put before it, and a 
comma after it. 


1. A noun is a name ; as, Cincinnati, Gen. Sherman. (The above 
rules and notes afford numerous examples of this use of oi.) 

2. There are three cardinal virtues; namely, faith, hope, and 

3. Some animals are amphibious; that is, they can live on the land 
or in the water. 


Remark 1. Wten such introductory words, with the terms aftei 
them, are used parenthetically, a comma precedes; as, " Of the three 
cardinal virtues, namely, faith, hope, and charity, the greatest is 
charity " " The word reck, that is, care, denotes a stretching of the 

Bemabe 2. Viz., though it means the same as namdy, requires 
different punctuation. It is now always preceded hy a comma and 
followed by a colon ; as, '* Our duties to individuals are classed undei 
four heads, viz.: as arising from affinity; friendship; benefits re- 
ceived; contract." 


Supply the omitted points and capitals in the fol- 
lowing : — 

When the righteous are in authority, the people rejpice'but 
when the wicked beareth rule, the people monrn^wiere are 
three person^the first, the second, and the third.he that walketh 
uprightly walketh surely: but^he that perverteth his ways^ shall 
be known#ihe following resolution wa« debated! resolvedf-that 
the death penalty should be abolished. i!he following books are 
Tecommended for j^ung meniTecollections of a busy life, by 
Miorace greeleytffiy schools and schoolmasters, by hugh Milleijl 
have two objections to the plaiyfirst,"-!! is too expensivej second, 
it would require too much tim^. 

THE COMMA ( , ). 

Rule I. Co-ordinate clauses, and subord^inate clauses 
not restrictive, are generally set off* by commas ; as, — 

1. I believe him, because I have always found him truthful. 

2. The good shall be rewarded, but the wicked shall perish. 

* " Set off" means, separated from what preceaes or follows, or both. 


3. The good which you do will not be lost, though it may be 

Note 1. If clauses are short and closely connected, no point 
is required between them ; as, " Learning is better than richer 
{are)." ''John is playing and his sister is studying'' "The 
wicked flee when no man pursueth." 

Note 2. No point is allowable between a restrictive phrase 
or clause and the word which it limits, unless there are in- 
tervening words ; as, " Death is the season which tests our 

Explanation. — A clause is said to be restrictive, when it limits a 
particular word to a particular sense. Thus, in the sentence, " The 
boy who studies will improve," the meaning is not *' The boy will im- 
prove," but " ITie boy who studUs {i. e., the studious boy) will improve." 
Hence the clause " who studies " is restrictive. Clauses that are not 
restrictive are called circumstantial. Thus, in the sentence, " John, 
w?io is a diligent stttdent, knows his lesson," the clause, " who is a 
diligent student," is circumstantial, not restrictive. 


[This may be used either as an or&l or a written exercise.] 

Tell which, of the clauses in the following sentences 
are restrictive, and which circumstantial, and insert 
commas where needed : — 

The flowers which bloom in spring, are most regarded. My 
favorite bird is the robin» which appears about the first of 
April. No man who is a real friencL would speak so. The 
man who hath done this thingj shall surely die. The time 
when compromise was possible., has passed. This ma^ who is 
my frienc^ assures me of the fact. Every teacher must love a 
pupil who is docile. The child was much attached to his 
teacher who loved him dearly. Urbanity oft-en lends a grace 
to arctionsj that are of themselves ungracious. Study nature, 
whose laws and phenomena are all deeply interesting. Adopt 
a life^ founded on religion and virtue. 


Bnle 11. The comma is used to set off transposed 

phrases and clauses ; as, — 

1. When the wicked entice thee, consent thou not. 

2. Before giving way to rage, try to find a reason foi being angry. 

Remark. — If the inversion seems easy and natural, no point 
is required ; as, * In this way he obtained the prise." 

Rule III. A comma is used to set off interposed 
words, phrases, or clauses ; as, — 

1. This, however, was not my purpose. 

2. Every passion, however base or unworthy, is eloquent. 

3. Let us send light and joy. if we can. to every one around as. 

Explanation. — "Interposed" means, placed between. An ex- 
pression is said to be interposed, when it is introduced somewhat 
abruptly between parts that are closely related. 


Punctuate the following sentences according to Rules 
II. and III. :— 

1. Of all our senses^sight is the most important. 

2. Christianity is, in a most important sens^ the religion of 

3. Charity ^n whatever side we contemplate one of the 
highest Christian graces. 

4. Charity^ like the san brightens every object on which it 

5. Happiness ^the^eforey depends on yourself 

6. Of all bad habit^ that of idleness, is the most incorrigible. 

7. Till we can go alonejwe must lean on the hand of n 

8. He had^no doubt^great aptitude for learning languages. 

9. It is mind after all that does the work of tlie world. 

10. To mostireligion is a mere tradition. 


Role IV. The comma is used between similar or 
repeated words or phrases ; as, — 

1. Earth, air, and water teem with life. (Similar words.) 

2. Live or die, sink or swim, survive or perish, I give my heart and 
my hand to this vote. (Similar pairs.) 

3. He lived in seclusion, in poverty, and in disgrace. (Similar 

4. Come, come, come; I fear we shall be late. (Repeated words.) 

Explanation. — "Similar," as used here, means, "in the same 

Note 1. In a series of similar expressions, three cases may 
arise : — 

1. Where all the conjunctions are expressed. 

2. Where all are omitted except between the last two. 

3. Where all are omitted. 

In the /rsi of these cases no point is required ; in the second, 
all the terms are separated by commas ; in the third, all are 
separated by commas, and a comma is placed after the last to 
separate it from what follows.'^ These cases are illustrated in 
the following examples : — 

1. First Case. — We should live soberly and righteously and 
piously in the present world. 

2. Second Case. — We should live soberly, righteously ,f and piously 
in the present world. 

3. Third Case. — We should live soberly, righteously, piously, in the 
present world. 

* If the terms are adjectives, a comma must not be put between 
tbe last one and the noun it limits ; as, " He is an honest, industrious 

f Many persons improperly reject the comma between the last two 
terms when the conjunction is expressed. The method of punctuating 
here given is in accordance with nearly all recognized authorities on 
the subject, as well as with the usage of the best authors and pub- 
Ushers. The reasons for it may be found in Wilson's excellent 
treatise, to which reference has already been made. 


Note 2. Two or more similar terms under Case Ist (Note 1) 
must be separated by commas, If either of them has an adjunct 
or modifier that does not apply to the others ; as, " Joseph 
woke, and thought upon his dream." 

In this example, " upon his dream " belongs to " thought," but not. 
to " woke." Without the comma, the sentence would mean, " Jcsepb 
woke upon his dream and thought upon his dream" — an absurdity. 


Use commas where they are required by Rule IV-^ 
and the notes under it : — 

1. The principal metals are gold silver mercury copper tin- 
and lead. 

2. A man that is temperate generous reliant faithful ancL 
honest, may at the same time have wit humor mirth and good^ 
breeding. • 

3. Power riches prosperity are sometimes conferred on th^ 
worst of men. 

4. I^eath levels the rich and the poor the proud and th^ 
bumble the strong and the feeble the young and the old. 

5. Undue susceptibility and the preponderance of mere feel- 
ing over thoughtfulness, may mislead us. 

6. Can flattery soothe the dull cold ear of death ? (See first 
foot-note on p. 193.) 

Rule V. The comma is used to set off independent 
elements ; as, ''John, come here, dr.'' 

11 EM ARK. — This rule applies to — 

1. The nominative case independent; as, " I rise, Mr. Pntideni, to 
a point of order." 

2. The nominative case absolute ; as, " The Tnoming being dear, w« 

3. An unemphatic interjection : as. "Oh, how pretty!" 

4. An independent adverb; as, "Well, how are you succeeding?" 


Rule VI. The comma is used to set off an appositive 
element ; as, James McCosh, D. -D., is a distinguished 

Behabe. — If the appositive is quite short, — only a word or two, — 
DO commas are required ; as, " Paul the apostle was a man of energy." 


Punctuate the following sentences according to Rules 
V. and VI. :— 

1. Socrates the Greek philosopher never gave way to anger. 

2. Sir Isaac Newton the eminent astronomer was remark- 
able for his modesty. 

3. Charles V. King of Spain and Emperor of Germany died 
in a convent. 

4. Boy bring me my boots. 

5. The book was written by Francis Wayland D. D. LL.D. 

6. Shame lost all virtue is lost. 

7. Show pity Lord ! Lord forgive. 

8. Accept my dear yonng friends this expression of my 

9. The question What is beauty? is hard to answer. 

10. Why how well you look ! 

Rule Vn. A comma is placed at the end of a long 
compound or complex subject ; as, — 

1. Love for study, a desire to do right, and carefulness in the 
rlioice of friends, are important traits of character. 

2. He that places himself neither higher nor lower than he ought 
t do, exercises the truest humility. 

Rekake. — If the subject is very long, especially if it is subdivided 
by ]K)ints, a dash should be put after the comma. 

Rule Vm. A comma is generally used to mark the 
ellipsis of a verb or other important words ; as, — 

" Hurry is the mark of a weak mind ; despatch, of a strong one." 


Rule IX* The comma is used to set off a short 
quotation informally introduced ;* as, — 

Agassiz once said, " I have not time to make money." 

Kemabk 1. This rule applies to any remark or observatioii re 
sembling a quotation ; as, " An important lesson in education is 
Learn to distrust your own opinions." "Resolved, That women shall 
be allowed to vote." 

Kehake 2. An informal introduction generally ends with say, 
exclaim, remark, or some similar verb. Sometimes the quotation ii 
in apposition ; as, The maxim, '* Know thyself." should not be for- 

Remake 3. A divided quotationf requires two commas ; as, " Vir- 
tue," says Dryden, " is its own reward." 

Rule X. The comma is used to prevent ambiguity, 
and to give prominence to emphatic and contrasted 
parts; as, — 

1. He who teaches, often learns himself. (If the comma were 
omitted, the sentence would be ambiguous.) 

2. Strong proofs, not a loud voice, produce conviction. 

3. I remain, yours respectfully, John Smith. 

Note. — Phrases and clauses that are placed at a distance 
from the word on which they depend, or that have a common 
dependence on several words, are preceded by a comma ; as, — 

1. No man can be a thorough proficient in navigation, who has 
never been at sea. 

2. I prepare those lessons which require the closest thinking, early 
in the m,oming. 

3. Law is a nde of civil conduct, |>rescn6«(i by the supreme powei 
in the state, commanding what is right, prohibiting what is wrong. 

* See Rule II. and Bemark, page 185. 
tSee Note 2, page 184. 


4. He questioned me of the battles, sieges, fortunes, that I have* 
passed. (That refers equally to battles, sieges, &nd fortunes.) 

5. We ought not to betray, but to defend, our country. {Betray 
and defend are in contrast, and our country is equally related to 
both } 


Supply the omitted commas and capitals in the 
following sentences : — 

1. "A faithful friend" it has been beautifully said "is the 
medicine of life." 

2. A new feeling of what is due to the ignorant the poor and 
the depraved has sprung up in society. 

3. We live in deeds not years ; in thoughts not breaths ; in 
feelings not in figures on a dial. 

4. Homer was the greater genius ; Virgil the better artist. 

5. It is as great a breach of propriety to send an awkward 
careless badly written letter as it is to appear in a company 
of refined people with swaggering gait soiled linen and un- 
kempt hair. 

6. The books the pictures the statuary that were bought in 
Europe were all lost. [AU the articles were bought in Europe.] 


Supply the omitted points and capitals, and give the 
rule for each : — 

1. The essence of poetry may be said to consist in three 
things invention expression and inspiration. 

2. View the path you are entering on with an enlightened 

3. Paul tlie apostle of the gentiles was a man of energy. 

4. I inquired how did you like the sermon joLn — Pretty 
ffell he replied but it was too long. 

5. Break break break on thy cold gitt^ &\»o\i^'^ C^ ^^"^ 



6. Stones grow plants grow and live animals grow live 
and feel. 

7. Wordsworth's great work is the excursion but it is not bo 
much admired as tintern abbey ode to duty we are seven lucj 
and other short poems. 

8. He who masters his passions conquers his greatest enemy 

9. Most of those who have nothing to do commonly do noth- 

10. A paper contains the following Advertisement wanted a 
room for a single Gentleman twelve feet long and six feet wide 

11. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year 
president William Wallace of salem vice president John Went- 
worth of boston secretary John greenleaf of Amesbury trea- 
surer henry wilson of natick executive committee John smith 
charles Williams and henry winslow all of boston. 

12. Flowers seem intended for the solace of ordinary human- 
ity children love them quiet contented ordinary people love 
them as they grow luxurious and disorderly people rejoice in 
them gathered they are the cottager's treasure and in the 
crowded town [they] mark as with a little broken fragment of 
rainbow the windows of the workers in whose hearts rests the 
covenant of peace. — Ruskin. 

THE DASH ( — ). 

Rule 1* Dashes may be used to set off a paren- 
thetical expression ; as, — 

" There was a pond — no, rather a bowl — of water in the centre." 

Kemabe. — The dash — ^probably owing to its greater neatness and 
o>::;nvenience — has to a great extent displaced the curves, or paren- 
tussis; and the comma (see Eule III., p. 192) has a similar use. It 
may be stated that the commas in this use denote the least, the 
dashes the medium, and the curves the greatest degiee of separatioD. 
Bot'h the dushes «nd *h<» «nTv«w at« coneotlv used in thia He!il»r!r. 


Rnle II. The dash may be used to denote an inter- 
ruption or a sudden change of thought ; as, — 

1. " I knew I should find you at " — She cut me short by rising. 

2. Is it possible that my friend — but I will not suspect him of the 

Remark. — The dash sometimes denotes merely a significant 
pause ; as, " The best way to punish him is to— let him alone." 

Rule in. The dash may be used to denote a sum- 
ming up of particulars ; as, — 

He has lost wealth, home, friends — everything but honor. 

Rule IV. The dash may be used to add effect to 
other points. 

Remark. — Two instances under this rule — namely, the use of the 
dash before an enumeration (page 189, Note 1, a), and its use after a 
long subject (page 195, Rule VII., Remark) — have already been 
given. Among other uses may be mentioned the following : — 

1. After a side head. (See head of this Remark.) 

2. Between two quotations brought together in the same line ; as, 
•' Are you ready?"—" Yes." 

^ 3. At the end of an extract, before the name of the author or 
irork ; as, — 

"The groves were God's first temples." — Bryant. 
4. After cw, namely, as follows, or other introductory word or words, 
when the example, quotation, or enumeration forms a separate para- 
graph. (Many illustrations of this use may be found on this and tha 
jrreceding pages.) 


Supply dashes where required in the following : — 

1. But there lies the source so at least I believe of my sor- 

2. But not one of them [the women] betrayed the mysterious 
something or other really, I can't explain precisely what it 
wiw \ which I was looking for. Atlantic Monthly, 


3. There he sits hefore his table and lets his cofifee cool ancB 
God knows I was ready to drink it warm two hours ago an(F 
never looks at me. 

4. And since there was no rehearsal delicious thought hov 
it oc.iurred to me again and again ! since I was free, I walked. 

5. He was witty learned industrious plausible everything but 

6. Was there ever a braver captain ? Was there ever but I 
scorn to boast. 

7. The three greatest names in English poetry are among 
the first we come to Chaucer Shakspeare Milton. 

8. •' I have" " Nothing in the world," said the other. 


Biile. — The curves are used to enclose a remark, 
reference, or explanation, that has little if any connec- 
tion with the rest of the sentence ; as, — 

" I was eager to discover the fair unknown, (she was again fair, to 
my fancy !) and I determined to go down to the party." — AUaniie 

Exp. — The enclosed expression is called a parenthesis. The same 
name is sometimes applied to the enclosing marks, bilt the term 
carves is shorter and more appropriate. 

BEFEftENCE. — See remark under Rule I. for the dash, p. 198. 

RjSM. 1. Inside Points. — The parenthesis is punctuated as if it were 
not enclosed, with this exception : no point is used at the end (insidfi 
the curve), unless it be an interrogation, or exclamation, or period 
denoting an abbreviation. Other points seem to be superseded by the 

* Sometimes an entire sentence is enclosed in curves ; that is, it it 
a parenthesis with reference to the paragraph. In that case the olos- 
ing point is placed inside the last curve. 


Example 1. " He says (I don't believe it) that my friend told him 
3o." Here the parenthesis is a full sentence, but no period is used ai 
the end. Example 2. "He tells me (is it so?) that you are going 
home." Here the parenthesis is interrogative, and requires a ques 
tion mark. 

Reji. 2. Outside Points. — To ascertain whether any point is re- 
qaired outside the curves, ask yourself the question, Would any point 
be required in this place, if the parenthesis were removed, and the 
parts before and after it brought together? If so, the same point 
must still be used ; but where shall it be f — before the first, or after the 
last, curve? Answer : It must be placed the last curve* unless 
. there is a point inside that curve : if there is a point inside, then the 
outside point must be 'placed before the first curve. 


1. Know, then, this truth (enough for man to know): Virtue alone 
18 happiness below. [Here the parenthesis is, as it were, pushed in 
between ^rvih and the colon required after it.] 

2. Know, then, this truth : (oh, that all could be brought to realize 
it!) virtue alone is happiness below. [Here an exclamation is inside 
the last curve, hence the colon is put before the first. See also the 
example under the above rule.] 


Supply curves and other points where needed in the 
following sentences : — 

1. There ha^ been no want of "chivalrous" she used the 
word ! respect and attention. 

2. Many have wondered perhaps you among the rest at my 

3. While the Christian desires the approbation of his fellow- 
men and why should he not desire it he disdains to receive 
their good-will by dishonorable means. 

*Some writers place the point before the curve, and repeat the 
point insile the last curve. This method is now nearly oleolete. 



4. The rocks hard hearted varlets ! melted xiofc ijito tears. 

6. I gave eaid he and who would not have given? my last 
dollar to the miserable beggar. 

6. She had managed the matter so well oh how artfnl a 
woman she was as to ensnare my father's heart. ^ 


Role* — The brackets are used to enclose some inter- 
polation or correction made by an editor, reporter, or 
transcriber; as, — 

1. " The number of our days are [is] with thee." (Correction.) 

2. " My colleague [Mr. Scott] is mistaken." 

Rem. — The words enclosed in curves are part of the original com- 
position ; those enclosed in brackets generally are not. But a writer 
sometimes uses the brackets to enclose something that seems some- 
what foreign to the context — a remark, for instance, under the head 
of " Examples," as on page 201 of this work, and elsewhere. 

Reference. — See the Remarks under Curves (pp. 200, 201) 
They apply to the brackets also. 


Punctuate the following extract from a report of one 
of Chatham's speeches ; bearing in mind the rules and 
remarks on dashes', curves, and brackets : — 

They should have beheld him when addressing himself to 
Mr. Granville's successors he said As to the present gentlemen 
those at least whonul have in my eye looking at the bench on 
which Conway sat I have no objection I have never been made 
a sacrifice by any of them. Some of them have done me the 
honor to ask my poor opinion before they would engage to 
repeal the act: they will do me the justice to cwn I did 


advise them to engage to do it but notwithstanding for I love 
to be explicit I cannot give them my confidence sensation Par- 
don me gentlemen bowing to them confidence is a plant of slow 


1. While the world lasts^some will lead, other^be led* 

2. Is it possible that he is>but why^borrow troublef 

3. He began his speech as follows * Mr. Ohairmai^ we have 
met for the freest discussion^ of this subject » 

4. A lady should be as to her dresi^ modestjprett;^ sensiblqjas 
to her behavior^ dignified^ graceful self-forgetful^* as to her mo- 
tives^ pure^ benevolent, aspiring* 

5. **k. fool always wants to shorten space and time| a wise 
man wants to lengthen both* A fool wants to kill space and 
time»a wise man first to gain them. then to animate themV 

6. His closing words were these tGentlemenj I have detained 
yoQ too long already^and will not further trespass ^ries of go 
on, go o^tipon your patienct, ^c^ gentlemen^ I cannot go on 
now ancfi close by bidding you good nigh'^oud and prolonged 
cheers during which the speaker withdre^ 

7. Wherever we may fix there is still some one whom we may 
find superior or inferior and these relations are mutually convert- 
ible as we ascend or descend the shrub is taller than the flower 
which grows in its shade the tree than the shrub the rock than 
the tree the mountain than the single rock and above all are 
the sun and the heavens it is the same in the world of life 


Wit ahd Humoe. 

Falstaff has both wit and humor but more wit I think ,than 
humor, between wit and humor there is an evident distinction, 
but to subject the distinction to minute criticism would require 
more time than we can spare and after all it is more easy to 


feel .than to explain it^f I should say alezander pope has greai 
witlcharles dickens has great hamor, all would give me theii 
assent ^but if reversing the positions I should say charlet 
dickens has great wit Alexander pope gre^ humor the asser- 
tion would be met by an instinctive denial^wit implies thought J 
humor sensibility ^wit deals with ideas.humor with actions and 
with manners^ wit may be a thing of pure imagination fthumcr 
involves sentiment and character ^it is an essence^ humor an 
incarnation ^wit and humor however have some elements in 
common *both develop unexpected analogiesj both include the 
principles of contrast and assimilation > both detect inward 
resemblances amidst external difference^nd the result of both 
Is pleasurable surpri8e|[but] the surprise from wit excites admi* 
ration^the surprise from humor stimulates merriment .and pro- 
duces laughter^* humor is a genial quality^ laughter is indeed 
akin to weeping!and true humor is as closely allied to pity as;^ 
it is abhorrent of derision. -rflenry Oiles. 

[Further exercises may be had in abundance, and of the best kind, 
from any well-printed book or magazine.] 

Concluding SuoaBSTiONS. — 1. If you desire to improve in punc- 
tuation, notice the points used in whatever you are reading, and try 
to discover why they are used. You should also punctuate carefully 
whatever you write. 

2. Do not use too many points. Do not insert a point where it 
rimply may be inserted, but only where it must be ; or, at least, when 
it adds to the clearness or force of the sentence. 




Appellative Titles. 

Forms of Address and Salutation 


Foreign Words and Phrases. 

Postal Information. 

Business Forms. 


Appellative Titles. 



1. Use and Abuse op Titles. 

2. List op Titles and their ABBEEviATioirs. 

Introductory Remark. — An attempt is here made to reduce to 
something like a system the " unwritten law " recognized by the 
highest authorities in social, professional, and official circles, relating 
to the use of the various appellative titles employed in the United 
States. This is done mainly for the purpose of assisting those who 
have occasion to employ these titles in correspondence ; but beyond 
this, we hope to do something for the diffusion of correct ideas on the 
subject, to the end that the public at large may learn to bestow these 
titular honors with intelligent and just discrimination. 

Farts* — This article will consist of two parts: in the first 
will be discussed the significance and use of the various kinds 
of titles ; and in the second will be presented a full classified 
list of them, with their authorized abbreviations. 


Classification* — American titles may be classified as 
follows : — 

1. Titles of Respect and Couetesy. 
^. Titles of Attainment in Cottrse. 
3. Titles of Service ex-oppicio. 

For brevity, these may be respectively designated as 
Social, Scholastic, and Official titles. 


Social Titles. — Titles of respect and courtesy are of uni- 
versal application ; and are usually employed in polite inter- 
course, unless superseded by some professional or official title 
To omit them in addressing others (except members of the 
Society of Friends, or those with whom we are on terms of 
the closest intimacy) betrays in any case a want of delicacy 
and refinement, and in some cases amounts to actual rude- 

The social titles usually employed are Mister (formerly 
Master), Sir, Esquire, Gentlemen (plural only), Master 
(applied to boys), Mistress (pronounced Missis), Madam, 
Miss, and Ladies (plural only). 

Mr., Master, Mrs., and Miss are always prefixed to the name. 
Esquire is always sufiSxed. Sir, Gentlemen, Madam, and Ladies are 
always used without the name, as in the salutation of a letter. Sir, 
Esq., Master, and Miss are used in both the singular and the plural; 
Gentlemen and Ladies (as titles), in the plural only ; Mrs. and 
Madam, in the singular only. Mr. has no English plural, but its 
place is supplied by Messrs., a contraction of the French Messieurs. 
The want of a plural of Madam is in like manner supplied by the 
word Ladies. But we have no word to serve as the plural of Mrs., 
unless it he the French Mesdames (plural of Madame). The objection 
to this is, that it is not yet Anglicized, and its use therefore savors 
of pedantry. The want of a good native plural of Mrs. is a serious 
defect in the language. We address a firm composed of Mr. Smith 
and Mr. Jones, as " Messrs. Smith & Jones ;" but how shall we 
address a firm composed of Mrs. Smith and Mrs. Jones ? Evidently 
we must either address them individually, as " Mrs. Smith and Mrs. 
Jones ;" or else collectively (using the obnoxious French term Mes- 
dames), as " Mmes. Smith and Jones." 

Mrs. and Lady. — Besides being vulgar, it is a shocking 
ambiguity to use "lady" instead of "wife" or "Mrs;" birt 
Mr. and Mrs. Jones is understood by every one. It is true 
that the other style, Mr. Jones and Lady, was once, in Dr. 
Johnson's time, for instance, in good usage in England ; bui 
this affords no valid reason for its use at the present day. 

TITLES. 209 

In invitations to prominent officials, Lady is sometimes 
employed to denote the wife of the officer, as *' The Secretary 
of the Nayy and Lady ;" but in general invitations to gentle- 
men, the plural form should be used, as " Mr. Charles Wilson 
and Ladies." 

The use of Mrs. or Miss, without the name, in address, is 
no more to be tolerated than the use of Mr. alone. 

Mr. and Esq. — In this country these terms are generally 
interchangeable, but the former has a somewhat wider appli- 
cation than the latter. Mr. may be applied to men of all 
classes, whether high or low ; but £sq. is properly applied 
only to persons of some prominence in society. It would 
be a misjise of language to address an ignorant man, for 
example, as Joseph Murray, IJsq.; but he might without 
impropriety be addressed as Mr. Joseph Murray. In aristo- 
cratic countries, this choice of title would be determined by 
a man's occupation alone, some kinds of labor being regarded 
as essentially menial and degrading ; but in this country, in 
accordance with the spirit of free institutions, it should be 
determined, not by a person's vocation or station, but by 
his acquirements, training, character, refinement, and public 
services. Honest worth, refined character, and valuable ser- 
vices to the country, are the foundations of true republican 
nobility, and have a right to command respect. 

Members of the legal profession are always addressed in 
anting as Esq, 

Special Uses of Mr., Mrs., and Miss.^There are some 
jiteresting fects in regard to the use of tlicse titles, which, 
though not directly relating to correspondence, are not out of 
place here : — 

1. To denote pre-eminence. — As persons rise to distinction, other 
titles seem to drop off as unmeaning and superfluous ; and the plain 
title of Mr., borrowing a lustre from their own characters and from the 
citi7«nship which they have done so much to eiii\oV>le,\i^(iov£\»i?.\.^'^Vfc^a. 


a mark of true nobility. Thus we say Mr. Adams, Mr. Lincoln, Mr 
Sumner, Mr. Chase ; and no other titles, such as Excellency. Honor- 
able, or Senator, would be so expressive of the respect and esteem 
with which they are regarded. Mrs. and Miss are similarly used to 
denote distinction ; as, Mrs. Stowe, Miss Dix. Indeed, in speaking 
Df persons of the very highest distinction, we reject all titles. Such 
tuen. for example, as Shakspeare, Milton, Martin Luther. Edmund 
Burke, Patrick Henry, and Daniel Webster, are most honored ia 
their own illustrious names alone. 

The common American vulgarism of contracting and mutilating 
the Christian name in referring to prominent or elderly persons, as 
Dan Webster, Joe Johnston, Ben Wade, and Andy Johnson, is dis- 
respectful, presumptuous, and altogether indefensible. 

2. To denote seniority. — If a person has an unusual name, or 
if he is the only person of the name in a particular* place, the 
title may be prefixed to the family name alone ; as, " Mr. East- 
lake, Mrs. Lefevre." If there are two or more persons of the 
same name, the oldest or most prominent may be addressed as 
Mr. Smith, the others of the name being addressed and spoken 
of as " Mr. Wm Smith, Mr. James Smith," etc., joining the title 
to the full name. As elsewhere stated, it is better, in address- 
ing a married woman, if her husband is living, to prefix the 
title Mrs. to her husband's name : as, " Mrs. John Smith." When 
the woman is married to the eldest male member of the family, 
or is the only one of the name, she receives merely the title of " Mrs. 
Smith," while each of the others is distinguished by her husband's 
name; as, "Mrs. Peter Smith," "Mrs. Thomas Smith," etc. When- 
ever the eldest dies, the wife of the eldest son or brother, or whoever 
may be next in the order of succession, succeeds to the honor of 
" Mrs. Smith.' In the case of two or more unmarried daughters, the 
eldest alone is " Miss Brown," while the others are " Miss Jane 
Brown," " Miss Svtsan Brown," etc. The same usage is sanctioned 
with respect to two or more sons. When all are addressed or spoken 
>f together, we may say, " the Misses Brown," or " the Mia 
i^rowns ;" " the Messrs. Brown," or *' the Mr. Browns," If, however, 
the family name ends in s, the title must be made plural, for the sake 
of euphony; qs, " the Misses Jones," "the Messrs. Rogers." 

3. To avoid invidious distinctions. — Mr. is used among geulle- 

TITLES. 211 

laen meeting as such, for social, literary, scientific, or other par* 
poses of mutual interest, when professional or official titles vhich 
attack to a part only of the company might seem to imply an .nvid 
ious comparison ; as, Mr. Benjamin Rush, Mr. Agassiz, Mr. EdwarJ 
Everett, Mr. Bryant, etc. Great delicacy of feeling is implied in thia 
use of Mr. It arises from that instinct of genuine politeness which 
carefully avoids everything which could wound the sensihilities of 
an^ one present by reminding him of his inferiority. 

4. Before other Titles. — Mr. is sometimes used before the official 
or ])rofessional titles of prominent personages ; as, "Mr. President." 
" Mr. Chief Justice." ** Mr. Senator." Rev. is similarly used, always 
with the prefixed ; as, " The Rev. Dr. Tyng," " The Rev. Prof. 
Hodge." " The Rev. Father Brown." The title Bev. should never be 
used immediatelv before the surname. Either the Christian name 
should be given, as " The Rev. Albert Barnes," or some other title 
should intervene, as in the above examples. If no scholastic title is 
applicable, Mr. may be used ; as, " The Rev. Mr. Elliott." 

Mrs. may in like manner be used, in speaking of or addressing 
married women, before the names and titles of their husbands; as, 
" Mrs. Admiral Porter," " Mrs. Senator Sherman," " Mrs. General 
Sheridan." Objections may be urged against this Ftyle of address: 
but it has the sanction of good usage at the National Capital ; and use 
^yes law to etiquette as well as to language. 

ScholMtic Titles. — These are degrees and other honors 
conferred by universities, colleges, scientific schools, and other 
institutions of learning, or acquired in the lawful exercise of 
a learned profession. 

Collegiate degrees, and those of scientific, art, and other 
learned associations, are conferred in two ways : regularly, or 
it course; and honoris causcL. Regular degrees are con- 
feTed upon those who have completed a prescribed course 
and passed a formal examination ; honorary degrees, on per- 
sons who have become distinguished in public life, or in 
liberal and scientific studies. Being bestowed as rewards of 
personal a< hievement, they belong for life to tl\<^ \^c.\^\<i.\s.^^ 


unaifected by any positions and honors that may be subse- 
quently obtained. 

Reverend, Pbesident, etc. — The title of Reverend^ 
though it is not regularly conferred, is always, given, by com- 
mon consent, to those who have passed the necessary exami- 
nation and been regularly ordained: and it may therefore 
without impropriety be said to be conferred in course. 

President, Provost, Chancellor, Rector, Dean, Registrar, 
Professor, and Master, as titles of service, attach primarily 
to the offices, rather than the officers ; and when the duties 
of these offices are discontinued, the titles themselves gener- 
ally fall into disuse. After long and distinguished service, 
however, the title may be retained, as in the case of Emeritus 
Professors, Emeritus Rectors, etc. 

Professor. — ^The title of Professor may be possessed of 
right or by courtesy. It belongs of right to any one elected by 
the proper authorities to a regular chair or professorship in any 
educational institution organized with full departments and 
faculties, and conferring degrees under a legal charter. One 
cannot become a professor of his own choice — i. e., be self- 
elected ; he must be elected by others who are vested with 
proper authority.* ^ 

The title is given by courtesy to scholars and scientists who 
have become noted as specialists in any department of know- 
ledge, and to those who have distinguished themselves as 

Abuse of the Title. — It is not uncommon at the present 
• lay for teachers of the Squeers sort, dancing-masters, horse- 
tamers, barbers, and pretenders of all kinds, to assume the 

* Projewor is uow, in academic language, applied to a salaried graduate, either 
actually employed iu teacliiug, or at least whose duty it is to teach. — EneytiUipadia 
Briianniea. This duty is not always recognized. The course of time has generated 
eiaecure profeBBonihipff.— Maiden, Origin of VniverniiM, p. 111. 

TITLES. 213 

title of Professor, in order to give them, in the eyes of the 
ignorant, an importance that they could never hope to attain 
by honest means. This abuse should be frowned upon by all 
intelligent people, as it tends to bring an honorable and 
useful title into contempt. All titles, and especially that of 
Professor, should be used sparingly and with wise discrimi- 

. Master.* — The term Master is used in England, and also 
in some parts of this country, instead of Principal or Teacher ; 
as "Head-Master of Eugby," "Master of Adams Grammar 
School." Formerly all male instructors were designated as 
" Master," or " Schoolmaster," but the more democratic term 
'' Teacher " has now pretty generally supplanted it. 


Doctor of Medicine (M. D.). — No one has a right to this 
title who is not a regular graduate of a college in good stand- 
ing. It may now be obtained by a person of either sex. A 
woman who is entitled to the degree may be addressed as 
" Florence Howard, M. D.," or as " Dr. Florence Howard." 

Abuse of the Title. — The unwarranted appropriation of 
titles, and especially of this title, is in any case a gross vio- 
lation of taste ; and when, as is too often the case, it is done 
to deceive the public for the sake of personal gain, it is a 
base and dangerous fi^ud. The professions — and society still 
more — need some authoritative and effective protection from 
such impostors; persons who, usurping professional titles, 
inflict upon the public unprofessional practice, and fill their 
pockets with money obtained by false pretences from over- 
credulous patients. Such announcements as, " Doctor Bun- 
come's Elixir of Life," " Br. Gullaway, Medical Adviser and 
Electrician," ''Dr. Jalap, M. Z)., cures all fatal diseases," etc., 

* Master MiA Doctor vrere formerly synonymous terms; but in process of time 
the name Maater was restricted to teachers of the liberal arts, and the title Of 
Doctor v/M AAsnmed by teachers of theology, law, and xc^ed\cvcv«. 


ought at least to suggest doubt and investigation \o invalids 
Life and health are too precious to be entrusted to the care of 
ignorant and unprincipled quacks. 

Official Titles. — These include all the titles applicable t^ 
officers in the civil, military, and naval services of the United 
States and of the several States. Civil titles belong to the 
office and not to the incumbent. Though the officer, on retiring 
from public service, again becomes a private citizen, it is 
customary, as a form of compliment, to continue the officia] 
title during life, unless superseded by one more honorable. 
Indeed, it is not unusual to retain it even when different or 
inferior public service is afterward accepted. 

Thi.s anomaly in the use of titles in a country whose institution^ 
forbid titled classes, made it possible to have as advocates in a recent 
celebrated trial, two "Judges," two '* Generals," and several " Honor- 
ables." Observing this in the publi.shed reports, an English gentle- 
man wrote to a friend residing in this country, asking how and by 
what commission the cause was being tried. *' You have," said he, 
" a judge on the bench ; but then you have two judges, two generals, 
and as many honorables at the bar. Is the defendant being tried by 
a court of law, a court-martial, or a court ecclesiastic?" 

The retention of titles after retirement from service seema 
to be at variance with the spirit of our institutions, and it 
may therefore be questioned whether it would not be more 
patriotic, as well as in better taste, to discontinue the title 
with the office. 


His ExcEiiLENCY. — The title given to the President in 
Washington's time was His Excellency. Highness was pro- 
posed, but coming as it did from the Princes and Princesses 
Royal of England, it was rejected as unrepublican. The title 
of Excellency has gradually fallen into disuse in addressing the 
Chief Magistrate ; but it is still given to (Governors and For- 
eign Ministers. It is the legal title of the Gbvemors of Mas- 
eacbusntts and South Carolina; but so repugnant were iitled 

TITLES. 215 

forms to the founders of our National and State constitutions 
and laws, that with perhaps these two exceptions, no civil litlet 
other than those naming the officers have legal recognition. 

Hon. and Esq. — The general official titles in the civil 
service are Honorable and Esquire. The first is applicable 
to judges, mayors, senators and representatives in CongfCSs, 
the heads of government departments, and others of similar 
rank, below that of Governor or President ; and the title is 
generally retained through life.* All civil officers not having 
a right to the title of Honorable, are addressed as Esquire 
or Sir. 

Abuse of Hon. — The abuse of Honorable has brought ii 
into such disrepute, that without a knowledge of the charac- 
ter and services of those to whom it is given, it has come to 
have little significance. Only those whose abilities, character, 
and services have caused them to be elected or appointed tc 
the most important and responsible trusts of the nation, 
or of a State or city, are entitled to be enrolled as Honorable. 

Military and Naval Titles. — Military and Naval, like 
professional titles, are properly retained after long or distin- 
guished service. The title which properly belongs to an 
officer and by which he is addressed is that named in his 
commission. Those who rank under Captain in the Army, 
and Commander in the Navy, are addressed by their title, or 
simply as Mr., Sir, or Dr., as the case may be. U. S. A. and 
U. S. N. are given after their names by the officers of the 
United States Army aiud Navy respectively. 

Selection and Order of Titles. — When titles or degree? 
applicable to the same person are the same in kind, only the 
most honorable is used. When they differ in kind, and but 
one is given, the most honorable is used; if all are given. 

* For a more specific statement of tlie officers to whom this title may be applied 
we page 219. For the uses of Enquire ;itid Honorable in England, see pa;;e 240. 


they ai*e placed in the order of their honor or precedence, 
which is presumed to be the order in which they were con- 
ferred or acquired. 

Titles and degrees are not assumed by the writer in private cone* 
spondence ; but in an official communication of any kind the signature 
should be followed by the writer's office or rank, or its abbreviation ; 
as, •' George W. Sharswood, AsBociate Justice oj the Supreme Court of 
Penrm/lvania :" " W. T. Sherman, OeneraV A scholastic title is not 
appended to a signature, unless it is at the same time professional. 
Thus, " John Jones, LL.D.," as an official signature, would be in bad 
taste; but "John Smith, Jf.jD.." or " Wm. Brown, D,D.iS.," would 
be entirely proper, because M. D. and D. D. S. are not only scholastic 
or collegiate, but also professional titles. (See page 48.) 



I. TiTLEs 'dip Respect and Courtesy. 

II. Titles oip Attainment. 


III. Titles of Service. 


1. Divinity. 

2. Law. 

3. Medicine. 

4. Phil, and Science. 

5. Arts and Letters. 

6. Music. 

7. Technics. 

8. Didactics. 

9. Fellowships, etc. 

1. Clerical. 

2. Civil. 

3. Professional. 

4. Military and Naval. 

5. Diplomatic. 

Note. — Scholastic Degrees (A. M., D. D., etc.) are always abbre* 
viated. No abbreviations are allowable in addressing an officer of 
high rank ; a President, Governor, or Archbishop, for example. A 
list of general abbreviations may be found on page 242, et »eq. 



Behabk. — Many abbreviations of titles may be used in catalogues, 
on tb9 title-pages of books, and elsewhere, that are inadmissible i.i 
addressing letters. In addresses, no degree is used lower than Master 
or Doctor. Thus, we may write "John Smith, A. M., or M. D.," but 
not " John Smith, A. B., or B. S." If a person has no higher title 
than a bachelor's degree, we should use simply Mr. or Esq. In formal 
letters any of the higher titles, such as S. T. D., L. H. D.. A. A. S., 
may be used. If a person has a number of honorable distinctions, 
one or more may be used, followed by etc; as, " John Tyndall, LL.D., 
F. K. S., etc." In the following list, the more usual abbreviations are 
preceded by a section-mark ( § ) ; as, J LL.D. 

I. Titles of Respect and Courtesy. 

[Fr. denotes French ; pi., plural ; pron., pronounced ; itoltoc, foreign.] 

Mister (formerly Master) § Mr. 
Messieurs (Fr. pi.) . § Messrs. 


Sir, Sirs 

Esquire, Esquires JEsQ., Bsqs. 
Master (a boy) . . . . . 

Mistress (pron. Missis) . § Mrs. 
Mesdames (Fr. pi.) . . Mines. 

Madam Mad. 

Madame (Fr.) .... Mine. 


Miss, Misses 

II. Titles of Attainment in Couese. 

All of the following degrees, and many more, are authorized ; but 
many of them are rarely if ever given. B. C. L., D. C. L., and a few 
others are conferred only by foreign universities. Harvard College 
confers only the following degrees: regular — A. B., A. M., Ph. D., 
B.D., LL.B.. S.B., S.D., C.E., M. D., D.M.D.: honorary— LL.D., 
D. D. Yale confers nearly the same, with the addition of Ph. B., 
D. E., and Mus. D. 

[The Latin terms are given only when they are necessary to explain the abbrt- • 


1. Divinity. 

Bachelor of Divinity B. D. 

Doctor of Divinity . . gD. D. 
Doctor of Divinity, Sanctce The- 

ologiae Doctor . . S. T. D. 
Doctor of Divinity, Doctor The- 

vlogioe D. T. 


Professor of Divinity, Sanctce The- 
ologicB Professor . . S. T. P. 

2. Law. 

Bachelor of Laws . . . LL.B. 
Master of Laws .... M. L. 
Doctor of Laws . . . g LL.D. 


Dr.of Lsw!. JunifnZ»or(«r, J.D. [ 

noctor ol Civil Lbw, Juris Civilis ■ BBJ:b. of 

Doctor . . . : . J.C. D. ' Dr. ofMi 
Bwhslor of Civil Lai- , B.C.L. \ 
[iDctor^fCivilLaw. . D.O.L. | 
J>rofl)olhLavB, Canon Bud Civil. 

JuTuutrmtqnt Doetor J. U. D. 

I. Uiulc, 

»ic M.B.01 
D.M. or| 


of Medicine 

- M.B 


r U,-<ilciDe . 

■ SM.D 


n Surgfry, Chirm-gia Ma 







n Pharmacj 



a Pharmacy 


Dr. of J 

cnUl Biirppt 


Ur, Uen 

tal Medicine 


4. Phllosopb7 and Bdenoe 

Bach e Id 

of Philosophy , Ph. B„ 


. JPh.D 

of Science . 
f Science . 

6. Arte and Iiettare. 

fiachelin.lArls ^B.A.orA.B. 

Muster ..fAftB M.A.-rA.M. 

Ilschelor of Lelt,.r». £arml'i>irf„! 
Xilcrarum B. Lit. 

Doctor of Jjntltn, Literaram Doc- 
tor Ut. D. 

Doctor of Polite Lttj'rature, 
Literanim IIumaniorKm Doc- 
tor L.H.D. 

rwtI,Bnreatp(En>r.| , , P. L. 

I 7. Didactics. 

! (Pa. State Normal Schools,) 
I Bflchelorof the Elements . B. E. 
I Mailer ofthc Elements . M.B. 
I EachelorofScienW. , B.8 
I "Muster of Science . . M.S 
I Bachelor of the aassica . B. C. 
I Master of tlie Classics . . M. C, 

8. Technics. 

Civil Engineer . . . JC.B. 

9. Fellowships, etc. 

(A riran.) 

Fellow <Tf the. A 111. Aendeiiiy Artid- 

entile A Ttencati fE ^cjiu A- A.S. 

Ueirber of Ain. Anliqoarian Si. 

Sociiialu Social A. A. B. S. 

Mi'mbernf the Am Oriental Soc., 
Amerieana Orimtalii Sociiialii 
Sociua . . . . A. 0. 8. S. 

Member of Am. Phil. Soc.. So- 
citlotii Phitoiophica A meric\: nu 
Socius . . . , 8. P. A. 8. 

Fellow of the Mass. Med. Soc, 
Mn>saeh«sHlmst! Mididn-r 
Soeiemiit flooMS M. M. 8. S 



Fellow of the Hist. Society, Sncie- 
tatv IfiHorios Sodus 8. H. S. 

Fellow of Connecticut Academy, 
Conn. AcademicB Socius C.A.S. 

Thet«e are the only American societies that confer membershipe or fellownhipp 
tiiat are recognized as titles. 

III. Titles of Sekvice Ex-Offioio. 

1. The Clerical Service.* 

A Bishop (Epia., Cath., et al.) : — 

Right Reverend . ^Bt.Bev. 
A Bishop (Methodist) : — 

Reverend §Bev. 

A Presiding Elder (Meth.) : — 

Reverend Bev. 

A Rector. Minister, Priest, Rabbi. 

or Reader Bev. 

2. The OlvU Service. 
1. National Government. 

The Chief Executive : — 

1. Civil: The President ^Pres. 

2. Military : Commander-in-Chief 

of the Army and Navy. 

The Vice-President, Ex-OflRcio 
President of the Senate : — 
Honorable . . . . ^ Hon. 

CJhief- Justice of Supreme Court : — 
The Chief-Justice . . . C. J. 
His Honor 

Araociate Justices : — 

Justice Jus. 

His Honor 

Foreign Ministers: — 

His Excellency . . H. Ezc. 
Honorable Hon. 

Members of the Cabinet and Mem- 
bers of Congress . . . Hon. 

Heads of Bureaus, Asst. Secreta 
ries, Comptrollers and Auditors 
of the Treasury. Clerks of the 
Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives ^Esq. 

By courtesi/ . Hon. 

All other United States Officers, 

Esq. or Mr. 

• 2. State Governments. 
The Governor . . . . g Gov. 

Civil : His Excellency H. Ezc. 

Military : Commander-in-Chief. 
Sen. Judge of Supreme Court : — 

Chief- Just ice . . . . O. J. 

His Honor . . . . . — 
Associate Justices : — 

Justice ... . . Jue 


His Honor 

Lieutenant-Governor, Heads of 

Departments, State Senators,-! 

Law Judges .... Hon. 

* For Roman Catholic clerical titles see page 228, et teq. 

t Authorities are divided on the question whether the titl«* linn, fthnnld be ap. 
plied to nxfrnbers of the upper ami lower housen of the legi»«lRinr«<. It is the prac- 



Mayors of Cities : — 

Honorable Hon. 

His Honor 

Members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives* Esq. 

By courtesy . . Hon. 

Aldermen, Magistrates, and all 
OfBcers not specified . . Esq. 

3. Professional Services. 

Officers of Universities and Col- 
leges : — 
Chancellor . . . Chanc. 

Vice-Chan cellor . V.Chano. 
President .... ^Pres. 
Vice-President . J V. Pres. 

Provost Prov. 


Rector . 


J lib. 

Faculty and Instructors : — 

Professor .... J Prof. 



4. The Military and Naval Service. 

The command pertaining to the rank of general and line officers 
is printed under the title in finer type. Commands are however sub- 
ject to change by assignment, and " the laws governing the army 
organization have left it in an anomalous state, and the rank of 
commands in an unsettled condition." The titles of the general and 
line officers, placed opposite in the two columns, indicate relative rank 
in the two departments of service. 

Military Service (U. S. A.). 


General Gen. 

The Armies of the U. 8. 

Lieutenant General . Lt. Gen. 

Au Ar. Corps and territorial Div. 
Major General . . MaJ. Gen. 

A Division, and territorial Div. 

Brigadier General . Brigf. Gen. 
A Brigade, and territorial Dept. ' 

Colonel Col. 

A Regiment. 

Naval Service (U. S. N.). 


Admiral . . Adm. or Adml. 
The Fleets of the U. 8. 

Vice Admiral ... V. Adml. 
A Fleet or Fleets. 

Rear Admiral . . . B. Adml. 
A Fleet or Squadron. 

Commodore . . . Commo. 
Squadron. Ships of First Class. 

Captain Capt. 

Vessels of Second Class. 

tice of the Slate Department at WaHhington to apply the title Esq. to members 
cf both : but the custom of most States in different. Probably the greater weight 
of opinion is in favor of the usage here indicated; i.e., the application of Hon. to 
members of the upper house, and Esq. to those of the lower. In some States khs 
title of Hon. is applied also to the Speaker of the lower house. 
*8ee the j-receding foot-note, beginning on page 219. 



LINE 0FFICEB8 {OoniiMied). 

Lieutenant Colonel Lt. Col. 
A Battalion. 2d in com'd, Reg't. 

Major MaJ. 

A Battalion. Sd in com'd, Beg't. 

Captain Capt. 

A Ccmpany. 

First Lieutenant . let Lieut. 
A Platoon. 2d in com'd, Comp. 

Second Lieutenant . 2d Lieut. 
A Platoon. Sd in com'd, Comp. 


student at West Point Mil. Acad. 


Adjutant Greneral . Adj. Gten. 
Bank of Brigadier General. 

Assistant Adj. Gen. . A. A. G. 
Rank of Colonel to Major. 

Inspector General Insp. Q<en. 
Rank of Colonel. 

Assistant Insp. Gen. . A. I. G. 
Rank of Colonel. 

Quartermaster General Q. M. G. 
Rank of Brigadier General. 

Assistant Q. M. Gen. A. Q. M. G. 
Rank of Colonel. 

Deputy Q. M. G. . Dep. Q. M. G. 
Rank of Lt. Colonel. 

Quartermaster . . . . Q. M. 
Rank of M^jor. 

Assistant Quartermaster A.Q.M. 
Rank of Captain. 

Pommissary Gen. of Subsistence. 
Rank ol Brig. Gen. C. G. 8. 

Assistant C. G. S. . A. C. G. S. 
Rank of Colonel to Lt. Colonel. 

Commissary of Subsistence C. S. 
Rank of Major to Capt. 

LINE OFFICERS {Continued). 

Commander Com. 

Vemels of Third Clas8. 

Lieutenant Com. . . Lt. Com. 
Vessels of Fourth Class. 

Lieutenant Lleuti 

Executive Officer of Fourth Class. 

Master Mas. 

Assistant Navigator. 

Ensign Ens. 

Midshipman Mid 

Student at Annapolis Nav. Acad. 


Surgeon General . Surgr. Gen. 
Rank of Commodore. 

Medical Director . . Med. Dir. 
Rank of Captain. 

Medical Inspector . Med. Insp. 
Rank of Commander. 

Surgeon Surgf. 

Rank of Lieutenant Commander. 

Passed Assist. Surg. P. A. Surg-. 
Rank of Lieutenant. 

Assistant Surgeon Asst. Surg-. 
Rank of Master to Ensign. 

Paymaster General . . P. M. G. 
Rank of Commodore. 

Pay Director . . . Pay Dlr. 
Rank of Captain. 

Pay Inspector . . Pay Insp. 
Rank of Commander. 

Paymaster P. M. 

Rank of Lieutenant Commander. 

Passed Asst. P. M. P. A. P. M. 
Rank of Lieutenant. 

Assistant Paymaster . A. P.M. 
Rank of Master. 



STAFF OFFICERS {Continued). 

Surgeon-General . Surgr* Gen. 
Rank of Brigadier Qeneral. 

Chief Medical Purveyor, 

Rank of Col. Chf. Med. PUT. 

Surgeon Surgr. 

Rank of M^Jor. 

Assistant Surgeon Asst. Surgr. 
Rank of Captain to lat Lieut. 

Paymaster-General . P. M. G. 
Rank of Colonel. 

Assistant P. M. G. Asst.P.M.G. 
Rank of Colonel. 

Paymaster PayM. 

Rank of M%jor. 

Chief of Engineers . . Chf. E. 
iUnk of Brigadier General. 

Chief of Ordnance . Chf. Ord. 
Rank of Brigadier Genera). 

Judge-Adv.-Gen. . 
Rank of Brig. Gen. 

Rank of M^or. 

Cbier Signal Officer 
Rank of Colonel. 

J. A. G. 

J. A. 

c. s. o. 


Engineer-imChief Engr.-in-Chf. 
Rank of Commodore. 

Chief Engineers . . . Chf. B. 
Rank of Captain to Lieutenant. 

Passed Asst. Eng. . P. A. En^r* 
Rank of Lieut, to Master. 

Assistant Engineer . . A. Eng. 
Rank of Master to Ensign. 

Cadet Engineer : Cadet Eiigr. 
Graduates of Naval Academy. 

Chaplain Chap. 

Rank of Capt. to Lt. Com. 

Chief of Construction Chf. Con. 
Rank of Commodore. 

Naval Constructor Nav. Con. 
Rank of Captain to Lieutenant. 

Commandant .... Coxndt. 
Navy Yards and Stations. 

Navigator Nav. 

Master of a VesseL 

Captain (by courtesy) . . Capt. 
Master of a Merchant VesseL 

6. The Diplomatic and Consular Service. 

finvoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary, 

E. E. and M. P. 

Minister Plenipotentiary, 

Min. Plen. 

Minister Resident . Min. Res. 

Uinister Resident and Consul- 
General . . M. B. and C. G. 

Secretary of Legation Sec. Lesr< 

Interpreter Int. 

Consul-General . . . .CO. 
Vice-Consul-General . V. C. G. 

Consul C. 

Vice-Consul V.-C, 

Deputy Consul . . . . D. C. 
Consular Agent . . Con. Agrt. 
Commercial Agent . . C. A. 

Agent Afirt. 

Marshal Mar. 

Consular Clerk . . . . O. C 

Forms of Address and Salutation 

I. American. 

(The form of Addreu is printed in plain Roman type, the Salutation in italic. 
A deiiutes the Christian name; B , the surname. See Part I., p. 25 et neg.] 

1. Persons in Private Life. 

The fouiis and directions under this head are fully given in Parti., 
Chap. II., Sec. II., rendering any further forms unnecessary. 

2. Persons in the Learned Professions. 

The Clergy.* 

d Bishop (other than a Methodist). f 

To J the Right Reverend Alonzo Potter, D. D., Bishop of Pennsyl- 
vania. Right Reverend Sir : — or Right Rev. and dear Sir. 

A Rector, Minister, Priest^ Rabbi, ^ or Reader, § 

To the Rev. A B . To the Rev. Dr. A B . The Rev. 

George Brown, D. D., Rector (or Pastor, as the case may be) of 

Church, Philadelphia. Sir: — Reverend Sir : — Rev. and dear Sir : — 

The Bench and the Bar. 

The Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 

To the Hon. Salmon P. Chase, Chief-Justice ol— etc. To the Chief 
Justi33 of the Supreme Court, etc. Sir : — Mr. Chief-Justice : — Your 

* For the addresses and salutations to be used in addressing the clergy of th* 
Bitman Catholic Church, see page 228. 

t Method if*t bifthope dlRcIaim the title of Rt. Rev., and are addressed simply as Rev. 

] To may be omitted ; but it is better to retain it in writing to distinguished peiv 
(K>i)ages or corporate bodies. 

{In the Jewish Church all ordnin^d ministers are styled Rabbi, and in this 
country are addressed as Her. The Hebrew title is Moreh Tfedek (teacher of right- 
eousness), or Moranu (our teacher), or Moreh Moranu (the teacher of our teachers). 
The Reader is alno addieshed us Jlev. His Hebrew title is Hatan (conductor of 


Honor : — May it Please Your Honor : — May it Please the Honor- 

able Court: — 

Note.— Tour Honor, May it Please, etc., are the terms that are ased in coart. 
not in private letters. 

An Associate Justice. 

To the Honorable A B , Justice, etc. Or. Honorable Jusi i« c 

B . Sir : — Your Honor : — etc. 

Other Judges. 

The Hon. A B , Judge of the Court of Quarter Sessions 

(or as the case may be). Or simply, The Honorable A-; B . 

Sir : — Dear Sir : — Your Honor : — etc. 

LatpyerSf Justices of the Peac-e^ etc. 
John H. Jones, Esq. Sir: — Dear Sir: — 

The Medical Peofessiob. 
A Physician or Surgeon, 
Dr. 0. W. Holmes. Or, 0. W. Holmes, Esq., M. D. Sir:— 

A Dentist. 

Dr. John Alexander. Or, John Alexander, Esq., D. D. S. (or 
D. M. D.). Sir:— Dear Sir:— 


The President of a College. 

The Rev. Eliphalet Nott, D. D., LL.D., President of Union College. 
Or, The Rev. Di. Nott (with or without the official designation) 
Sir : — Dear Sir: — Rev. and dear Sir : — 

A Professor. » 

John Lewis, D. D., LL.D.. Professor of Greek in College. 

Or, Prof. John Lewis, D. D., LL.D. Oi, Dr. John Lewis, Prof, of , 

etc. Sir : — Dear Sir : — 

3. Officers In the Civil Service. 

The President of the United Stales, 

To the President, Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C Sir:-^ 

or Mr. President: — 

NoTK.— The term " His Excellency " was foi-merly applied to the President, thna 
To Xlis Excellency, George Washington, PreH. uf the U. S. ; but la now nearly U 
not quite discontinued. (See page 214.) 


The Vice-FreHdent. 

To the Honorable Henry Wilson, Vice-President of the United 
StatCiS. Or (unofficial), Hon. Henry Wilson. Sir : — 

Cabinet Ministers. 

To the Honorable E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War. Or, To tlip 
Honorable the Secretary of War. Or, Hon. E. M. Stanton. Sir .— 

All others not specified who are entitled to " Honorable " (see pag« ' 
215 and 219} are addressed in a similar manner. 

Foreign Ministers. 

To His Excellency Edward Everett. Envoy Ex., etc., at the Court 
of St. James. Your Excellency : — Sir : — 

Assistant Secretaries^ Heads of BureattSj etc. 

To John Smith, Esq., Assistant Secretary of State. Sir : — (Some- 
times, by courtesy, addressed as Son.) 

The Governor of a State, 

To His Excellency John A. Dix. Governor of the State of New York. 
Or, His Excellency Governor John A. Dix. Or, To His' Excellency 
the Governor. Sir : — Your ExceUency : — 

Heads of State DepartmerUSy Members of the State Senate^ etc. 
Hon. Samuel E. Dimmick, Attorney-General of Pa. Sir: — 

4. Officers in the Military or Naval Service. 

Aemy Officers. 

The General of the Army. 

To Greneral W. T. Sherman, Commanding the Armies of the United 

Statics. Or, General W. T. Sherman, Commanding U. S. A. Or, To 

Mie General of the Army.* General: — (or Sir: — See Note). 

K<vnB.— The general practice in the army is to use the military title (General, 
OoL, Captain, etc.) in the " salutation," in addressing all officers above the grade 
Af Lieutenant. A Lieut, has the salutation of /SKr. In the superscription, his rank 
in g«nerally mentioned. In army correspondence "the address " is generally, noi 
alwajB, written at the top of the letter. (See page .30.) 

A CoUmel. 

Col. Henry May, commanding 1st Cavalry. Or Col. Henry May, 
U. S. A. Colonel:— 

* It is a rule of the War Department at Washington, U* address ^U officers In 
ihis manner ; that is. by their office, not by name. 


The Qtuiriermcuter'General, See form on page 36. 
other officers of the Army are addressed in a similar manner. 

Navy Officers. 

The Admiral of the Navy. 

To Admiral D. G. Farragut, Commanding the Fleets of the United 
States. Or, Admiral D. G. Farragut, Commanding U. S. N, Or, To 
the Admiral of the Navy. Sir: — 

NoTK.— In the Navy, IXr is invariably used as the salutation ; and the address, 
conBisting of the name, title, and command, is written at the bottom. We make 
the following extract, ft-om the Navy Regulations:— 

" Line officers in the Navy, down to and including Commander, will be ad- 
dressed by their proper title ; below the rank of Commander, either by the title 
of their grade, or Mr. Officers of the Marine Corps above the rank of 1st Lieut, 
will be addressed by their military title, brevet or lineal ; of and below that rank, 
by their title of Jlfr. Officers not of the line will be addressed by their titles, or as 
Mr. or Dr., as the case may be." 

A Commodore. 

Commodore A B , commanding South Atlantic Sqaadron 

(or as the case may be). Or, Commodore A B , U. S. N. Sir .— 

Other officers of the Navy are addressed in a similar manner. 

5. Legrislative and Other Orgranized Bodies. 

Remark. — Communications to an organized body are generally 
addressed to the President of that body, as its chief representative. 
A communication may, however, be addressed to the body itself; but 
in this case, as in the other, it goes to the President, and is by him 
formally presented. Communications — especially petitions — are often 

addressed " To the President and Members of ," etc., meaning, 

of course, the President and other members 

The Senate of the United States. 

To the Honorable the Senate of the United States in Congress As 
sembled. Honorable Sirs: — Or, May it Please youi MonorabU 
3ody (or, the Honorable Senate) : — 

The President of the Senate. 

To the Honorable the President of the Senate of the United States. 
Or, To the Honorable Henry Wilson, President of the Senate of the 
United States. Sir: — Or, Honorable Sir: — 

The House of Representatives. 
Address and salutation similar to those of the Senate. 


The Speaker of the Houee, 

To the Honorable the Speaker of the House of Representative& 
Sir, or Mr. Speaker. 

State LegUUxtwrea, , 

They are addressed in the same form as the Houses of Congress ; ex- 

tsept, of course, the name, and the formula " in Congress assembled." 

NoTX.— The title fonoroMe la generally applied to legislative bodies when 
addressed collectively, even though the individual members are not entitled to !(• 
Thus, in addressing the House of Representatives uf a State, for example, we 
would use the title HonoToblt^ but in addressing any member of the House, we 
would use the title E»q.^ with the salutation Sir. The same remark applies to 
city governments. In some States the Speaker of the House is addressed as JTion. 

A Court. 

To the Honorable Judges of the Court. Your ITonors: — 

Or. May it Please Your Honors : — 

A Board of Education, 

To the President and Members of the Board of Education (or what- 
ever the corporate name may be). Sirs: — Or (if in a large city), 
May it Flease Your Honorable Body : — 

As stated above, communications (except petitions) are generally addressed to 
the President of such bodies, as follows:— 

The Pres. of a Board of Education^ Directors^ or Commissioners, 
To John T. Morris, Esq., President of the Board of School Com- 
missioners of Baltimore City. Sir : — 

To a Company, 

To Thos. A. Scott, Esq., President of the Pa. R. R. Co. Or, To 

A B , Esq., President of the Insurance Co., New 

York. Sir : — 

A Petition. 
To a Lfg^islai/iire, 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives uf the 
(•ommon wealth of Pennsylvania. 
The undersigned respectfully represent, etc. Or, 
The petition of A. B. (or the undersigned) humbly showeth, etc. 

(Close, when there are several signers.) 
And your petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray, etc. 
(Signatures.) | (Signatures.) 

In a petition to Congress, or to either House, add the words '*in Congress 
Bflsembled," as on page 226. ▲ petition to a Court or other body is In the same gen* 
eral form. 


BoMAH Catholio Titles and Forms. 

With Direeiions for Addressing the Pope and other Dignitaries oj the 
CTiureh, and a List of the Abbreviations allowed and used by Roman 

"KxnjiMATiom.—A—— denotes Okrittian name; B , fctmUy name; (a), the 

iddreM of the letter : (b), the mtbitatUm; («}, the eompUmuntary do$e. 

The Pope, 

(a) 1. To our Most Holy Father, Pope Pius the Ninth (or Pope 
Pius IX.). 
2. To His Holiness Pope Pius the Ninth (or Pope Pius IX.). 
(6) 1. Most Holy Father. 2. Your Holiness. 
(e) Prostrate at the feet of your Holiness, 

And begging the Apostolic Benediction, 

I protest myself now and at all times to be, 
Of your Holiness, the most obedient son, 

A B . 

Nora.— The first forms of address and salutation would be used by Catholics. 
The second forms might also be used by them, but would not sound so afiSsctionate 
and loyal as the others. They would be used chiefly by those who, having to com- 
municate with the Pope, but not acknowledging him as the head of their Church, 
would still wish to treat him with respect. The concluding form is of course for 
Catholics only. Non-Catholics would have to trust to their good taste or common 
sense to conclude suitably. If several join in the concluding form, it must be put 
in the plural. If the writer is a female, she writes " child," instead of ** daughter ;" 
If a boy or youth, he writes " child " instead of " son ;" if the writers are of both 
Mzes, they write " children." 

A Ca/rdinal. 

(a) 1. To His Eminence Cardinal B . (If he is also a bishop, 

an archbishop, or a patriarch, add) Bishop (or as the case 
may be) of . 

2. To His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal B- 

(6) 1. Most Eminent Sir. 2. Most Eminent and Most Reverend Sir. 
(c) 1. Of Your Eminence, 

The most obedient and most humble servant, 

A B 

* For the interesting and valuable information contained in this article we 
are indebted to Monsignor Seton, D. D., to whom we were kindly referrad by the 
Most Reverend Archbishop Wood, of Philadelphia. 


2. I have the honor to remain, 
Most Eminent Sir, 

With profound respect. 

Your obed't and humble serv't, 

A B 

VoTSS.— 1. If the writer is a Catholic and belongs to the cardinal's diocese (Bai» 
{losing him to have one), he adds, if he is an ecclesiastic, after the words "humblo 
•errant," the words "and subject;" but if he is a layman, he adds the wotJh, 
"and son." 

2. The Christian name is not generally used in addressing prelates, if the family 
name is a distinguished one, and if there is no danger of its being mistaken for 
the name of another person. To such common names as Smith and Jones, how- 
ever, the Christian name should generally be added, to avoid confusion. If the 
official title foUows the name, the Christian name muBt always be used ; as, 

*'His Eminence A B , Archbishop of New York." 

3. The title D. D. or S. T. D. (Doctor of Divinity) may be written after the name 
of a cardinal, archbishop, or bishop; but the best authorities condemn its use in 
these cases, for the reason that such persons are doctors ex-offlcio, and the title 
is therefore redundant. It is never used when the official title precedes the name. 

Thus, we may write " Bight Reverend A B , D. D., but not " Bight Reverend 

Bxthop B , D. D." 

A Patriarch. 

The forms used are the same as those given in the next paragraph, 
except that Patriarch is substituted for Archbishop, 

An Archbishop, 

(a) 1. Most Reverend Archbishop B . Or, 

2. Most Reverend A B , Archbishop of ^ 

(6) 1. Most Reverend and Respected Sir. Or, 

2. Most Reverend and Dear Sir. 
(e) 1. I have the honor to be, 

( Most Reverend Sir, or 
i Most Reverend Archbishop, or 
(, Most Reverend and Dear Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A B . 

NoTB.— The second fbrm of salutation (fr 2) is to be used only by a clergyman oi 

A Bishop, 

(o) 1. Right Reverend Bishop B . Or, 

2. Right Reverend A B , Bishop of 



(6) 1. Eight Reverend Sir. 2. Right Reverend and Dear Sir. 
8. Right Reverend and Dear Bishop. 

(6) I have the honor to remain, 

Right Reverend Sir (or any of the formulas 6, 1, 2, 3) 

Your ohedient servant, 

A B . 

MUred Abbots. 

(a) 1. Right Reverend Abbot B (name of abbey, post-office, 

county, State). Or, 

2. Right Reverend A B (initials of Order), Abbot 

of . 

(6) 1. Right Reverend Abbot. 2. Right Reverend Father Abbot. 

3. Right Reverend Father. 4. Right Reverend and Dear Sir. 

(e) 1. I remain, 

Right Reverend Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A B . Or, 

2. Begging your blessing, 

Right Reverend and dear Father, 
I remain, as ever, 

Your dutiful son 
(or your a£fectionate child), 

A B . 

NoTxa.— 1. By courtesy all abbots, whether mitred or not, have the same style 
and address. However, in addressing an abbot merely residing in an abbey, witb- 

90t being its abbot, of course " Abbot of " would be omitted, fbr the reason 

that, although an abbot, he has no abbey. 

2. The form (e 2) wotild perhaps be used only by a monk subject to the abbot or 
belonging to his order ; or by a boy or girl educated by monks or nuns of his order, 
•r in some way connected with the order or the abbot. 

{Roman) Prelates, 

I. Apostolic Prothonotaries. 
II. Dom'Mu Prelates (viz., of the Pope). 

(Both are styled, like bishops and abbots. Bight Beverend, and are generallj 
called Monsignores, a title, however, which is given, in Italy, to all prelates above 
them, except to cardinals and abbots; and to some dignitaries below them 
Among EngllBb-^peaking Catholics it is not ase^ of archbishops and bishops.) 


(a) 1. Right Reverend Monsignor* B . (I., II.) Or, 

2. Right Reverend A B . (I., II.) Or, 

3. Right Reverend Monsignor B , Prothonotary Apostolic 

(I. only.) 

4. Right Rev. Monsignor A B , Prothonotary Apos- 

tolic, etc. (I. only.) {Etc. is added when, as is usually 
the case, he has other dignities.) 

5. Right Reverend A B , 

Domestic Prelate of His Holiness (or of the Pop6). (II. 

It will be noticed that the Ist and 2d of the above forms apply eqvuilly to I. itnA 
[I. ; the 3d and 4th to T. only ; the 5th to II. only. 

(6) 1. Right Reverend Sir. 

2. Right Reverend Monsignore. Or, 

3. My dear Monsignor (if well acquainted). Or, simply 

4. Monsignor. 

The above forms (h) apply both to I. and II. The 4th is stiff, such as might be 
nsed by a total stranger or not very friendly correspondent. To t>egin, "M6d- 
signor B ," would be rude, and forebode that the wi^iter meant to say some- 
thing disagreeable. 

(c) 1. Right Reverend Sif. 

2. Right Reverend and Dear Sir. Of, 

3. My Dear Monsignor, 

Your friend and servant, 

A B- . 

Inferior Dignitaries. — All dignitaries inferior to the ahove-men- 
tioned (viz. : to patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, abbots, and prelates) 
are addressed " Very Reverend," except archdeacons,f who are 
styled venerable. Dignitaries are Roman Monsignores other than 
the two sorts of Prelates nientioued above, Administrator? of vacant 

*Montiffnor has become more or less anglicized; consequently, Monseifneur, 
which is French, should not be dsed except when writing in that language. Mon- 
tignoT and Momignore (Italian) are used indifferently, but in English the fbrmer ifl 

t There are no archdeacons in the XT. 8., but there was one for many years — ^the 
Ale Archdeacon McCarrou. of New York. 


diocftses, Vicars General, Provosts, Archpriests. Canons, Deans 
Heads and Provincials of Religious Orders, and Priors of Piiories 
(which are separate establishments). These, and by eowrtety some 
others, such as Priors of Monasteries over which abbots preside. 
Rectors and local Superiors of Religious Houses, Presidents or heads 
of seminaries, colleges, and larger religious institutions, are properly 
addressed as " Very Reverend." 

Doctor» of Divinity or of Laws (1), Vicars Forane (2), Bnral Deans (3)» 
▼ioe-Presidents of colleges, or other assistant superiors of religious institntiona 
(4), Members of the Episcopal Council (0), Examiners of the Clergy (6), Chan- 
cellors of a diocese (7), the Secretary of a bishop or of a diocese (8), and others, 
along with simple Priests, have no claim to be styled "Very Reverena.** 
although a somewhat abusive custom seems to allow it to classes 2, S, and 4. 
These and all others in Priests' or Deacons' orders should be styled simply 
••Beverend." ^ 

Administrators of Vacant Sees. 

(a) 1. Very Reverend A B (with initials of office). Or 

2. Very Reverend Father A B , 

Administrator of . 

(6) Very Reverend Sir. 

Note.— Such expressions as "My dear Yicar-Oeneral, or Deah; or Provost, oi 
Canon," etc., are used; but never the expression, "MyMear Administrator." 

A Vicar General. 

(a) 1. Very Reverend A B (with initials of office). Ot, 

2. Very Reverend Vicar General B . Or, 

3. Very Reverend A B , 

Vicar General of (name of diocese). 

(6) 1. Very Reverend and Dear Sir. 

2. Very Reverend Sir. Or, 

3. My dear Vicar General (only if the writer belong to tlie 

diocese). Or simply, 4. Dear Sir. 

Monsignores of the Inferior Degrees, 

(a) 1. Very Rieverend A B (followed by the name of 

office, for instance, " Private Chamberlain to the Pope") 
2. Very Reverend Monsignore A B (or B ). 

(6) 1. Very Reverend and Dear Monsignore. Or, 

2. Very Reverend Doctor (should he have this degree). 


The Rector of a Religious House f Provincial of an Orders or a Prior, 

(a) 1. Very RevereDd Father A B (initials of order) 

Rector (or Prior) of (name of House). Or, Pro- 
vincial of (name of Order, or, better, of the mem- 
bers of the Order taken collectively). 

Doctors of Divinity (J9. J9.) or of Laws {LL.D.) . 

{a) 1. Reverend A B , D. D. (or LL.D.). Or, 

2. Reverend Dr. A B . 

If snch an on^ be the pastor of a church, or a professor in a seminary or ottaet 
InatitatioD, add, •' Pastor of ," or " Professor of " 


(a) Venerable A B- 

Arcbdeacon of (church or diocese), 

(6) 1. Venerable Father. Or, 2. Venerable and Dear Sir. 

Priest (simply). 

(a) 1. Reverend A— — B . Or, 2. Reverend Father A 

B . Or, 3. Reverend Father B . 

(6) 1. Reverend Sir. Or, 2. Reverend and Dear Sir. Or, 
3. Reverend Doctor. 

KoTx.— " Tour Reverence" is courteous and correct, but is local in its use; be- 
lug confined mainly to Irish Catholics. 

Female Superiors of Religious Orders. 

(It is quite customary, but abusively so. to call every female supe- 
rior of a religious order, or house, " Reverend Mother." The proper 
style is as follows : — ) 

(a) 1. Mother (name in religion, e.g., Elizabeth). Or, 

2. Mother (name in religion, unless she preserves, as in 

some orders, her family name), 

Superior of («. g., Sisters of Charity). 

KoTX.— Members of one religious order in the United States, the " Ladies of tbs 
Hacred Heart," are always addressed and spoken of as " Madame." In England, 

an abbess is styled "The Right Reverend Lady Abbess of " (name of abbt.;), 

or "The Right Reverend Lady Abbess " (Christian and family names, oi 

(bmily name only). It is customary, even in the United States, to style religious 
women who are at the head of snme religious order (as, for instance, the Sisters 
of Charity),— not merely superiors of houses of that order, — or who are the supe- 
riors of houses belonging to ancient orders (as, for instance, the Benedictines, the 
Dominicans, etc.), "Reverend"; as, "The Reverend Abbess" or "Prioress," or 
"The Reverend Mother Abbess " or " Prioress," or " The Reverend Mother So- 


Mt Lord, Tovb LoxMniP, Toux Gracx.— In Great Britain these terms are 
always used in addressing cardinals, archbishops, bishops, and sometimes in ad- 
dressing abbots (see forms on page 240). An American, therefore, in commun- 
icating with such dignitaries, would do well, in the spirit of courtesy, to give to 
them the titles that belong to them in their own country ; but neither custom n >i 
the w)8be» of the corresponding dignitaries in the United States sanctions the 
adoption of a style which, from being so peculiarly English and associated with a 
i>tate of society utterly un-American, grates harshly on the ears of their fellow- 
citizens. Archbishop Bayley, of Baltimore, who is chief of the Hierarchy in this 
country, is much opp<)8ed to this form of address, as needlessly shocking to other 
citizens ; Bishop Becker, of Wilmington, Delaware, and Bishop Lynch, of Ctarles- 
ton, 8. C, hold the same opinion. 

The same objection applies to the use of "Tour Grace," etc., in connection 
with archbishops (see page 229). This style has been employed here, to a limited 
extent, among Catholics ; but it has always been received with disfavor, and 
seems to be dying out as a form of address,— except, of course, when applied to 
the archbishops of England and her dependencies. 

Letters and Petitions to the Pope and Others. 

- Letters. — In letters to the Pope, the salutation must stand alone 
upon one line at the top of the page ; the body of the letter occupies 
the middle portion of t6^ page, and the place of writing and date are 
put at ^he bottom, near the left edge. A certain vacant space should 
be left between the salutation and the beginning of the letter, an 
equal space between the complimentary close and the signature, and 
a less space between the end of the letter and the complimentary close. 
By reason of these requirements, note paper or any small form of 
letter-paper should never be used for this purpose. The same re- 
quirements must be observed in writing te Cardinals and other high 
ecclesiastics in all parts of Italy, — at least when writing in anything 
like a formal or official manner.— except that the spaces diminish 
with the rank of the dignitaries. 

Petitions. — The form of a petition is somewhat different; and the 
language should be Latin or Italian. French, however, is tolerated, 
if the Pope understand it, which may not always be the case. 

A sheet of official letter-paper is folded lengthwise inte two equal 
parts, by turning the left or folded edge over to the right (thus bring- 
ing half of the fourth page uppermost). Near the top of this fold is 
written ttie address of the Pope (" To His Holiness, Pope Pius IX.,'' 
e.g.) ; naif-way down, the word " for " (in the proper language) ; and 
near the bottcm. the name and residence of the petitioner. Ther 


ibe sheet is unfolded, bringing it to its original position. On the 
left-hand column of the first page, near the top, the petitioner writes 
the salatation (*' Most Holy Father," e.g.), then, — leaving the custom- 
ary space, — his petition; and at the bottom, without his signature, 
a formula corresponding to our closing form, " And your petitioner, 
as in duty bound, will ever pray," etc. On the right-hand fold oi 
column the Pope's answer is written, either in his own hand-writing 
or that of the person who has been charged with that duty. 

The olifeet of folding the page, and of writing the petition on one fold of it, 
is that the answer to it may he written on the other column or fold, and thus the 
two parts of the document he put, for convenience, in juxtaposition. 

One Side Only. — A petition, and, in fact, a letter, address, or 
any other communication to the Pope, should generally occupy only 
one side (the face) of the leaf; but if the matter cannot be contained 
on one page only, it should be continued on the third page of the 
sheet, and not on the second page. 

Place of Address. — In a letter to a Cardinal, the place and 
date should be written in the upper right-hand corner (the usual 
position), and the Cardinal's address in the lower left-hand corner. 
Indeed it is better in all cases to put a clergyman's address (as is cils- 
tomary in Rome) at the bottom rather than at the top. to distinguish 
the letter in form from ordinary business and other secular letters. 

Abbeeviations Used by Roman Catholics. 

Reuabk. — In writing to the Pope, a Cardinal, or any high dig- 
nitary, abbreviations relating to the dignitary may be used in the 
outside address, but not in the inside address or the body of the let- 
ter. Abbreviations that do not relate to the dignitary himself may, 
however, be tolerated in the letter. (See a similar remark on page 217 ) 

EZVI.AVATIOH.— The words and letters in italics are always printed so. 

Holy Father H. F. 

His Holiness H.H. 

Cardinal Card. 

His Eminence H. E. or His Em. 

Ardhbishop Abp. 

Bishop Bp. 

Abbott, Abbess .... Abb 

Prior, Prioress Pr. 

Monsignor . . . Monslgr.^ 
Prothonotary Apostolic, 

Prot. Ap. 
Domestic Prelate . Dom. Prel. 

*Mgr. is frequently, hut iguorantly, used for the abhreviation of Montignor. II 
It the abbreviation of the French Monteigneur. 



Private Chamberlain, 

Priv. Ghamb. 
Provincial. . . .Prov. orP. 

Superior Sup. 

Administrator . . . Adxn. 
Vicar Gen'l V. G. or Vic. (Jen. 
Vicar Forane V. P. or Vic. For. 
Rara>Dean . B. D. or Bur. Dn. 

Chancellor Chanc. 

Canon Can. 

Provost Prov. 

Secretary Sec. 

Brother .... Br. or Bro. 

Sister Sr. orSist. 

Rector ........ Beet. 

Father, Friar Fr. 

Most Reverend /MostBev.or 

\ Mt.Bev. 
Eight Reverend . . Bt. Bev. 
Very Rev. V. B. or Very Bev. 
Dr. of Civil or Canon Law LL.D. 
Doctor of Divinity . . . D. D.* 
Vicar Apostolic, 

V. A. or Vic. Ap, 
Diocese Dice. 

Pastor Past 

Saint St. 

Coadjutor, Coadjutor Bishop, 

Coad.,^ Ck>ad. Bp 
In partibus infidelium, 

inpart.X or i,p, i. 

Parish Priest P. P 

Mon astery . Mon. or Monast . 
Convent . . . Ck>n. orCk>nv. 

Community Ck>m. 

Congregation^ .... Ck>nsr. 

Novitiate Nov. 

Primate Prim. 

Metropolitan Metr . or Metrop . 
Diocesan Seminary Dioc.Sem. 
Provincial Seminary Prov.Sem. 
Catholic Institute . Cath. Inst. 
Young Men's Catholic Association. 
Y. M. Cath. A. 
Parochial Library Paroch. Lib. 
Female Academy, 

Fern. Ac. or Acad. 
Coadjutor with right of succes- 
sion Coad. cum, jure 8uc. 
Blessed Virgin Mary . B. V. M.|| 

* The clergy are divided into Secular clergy and Regnlar clergy. D. D. is gen- 
erally placed only after the name of a member of the secular clergy ; i. e., of one 
not belonging to a religious order. After the name of a member of a religious 
community, congregation, or order, it is usual to put the initials only of that com., 
cong., or order. In all cases, the D. D. precedes any other initials ; as, ** Very 
Rev. A B , D. D., V. Q." 

t Written with a amall c if after the name; as, "Rt. Bev. ▲— • B , coad* 


X Narer in capitals, and always after the name; as, *' Bt. Bev. A B , Bp. 

of inpairt," 

2 A kind of religious order. 

I Frequently found in Catholic Directories, after the name of a church as, ftw 
Instance, " Church of ihe Visitation, B. V. M." 



Abbeeviatiohs of the Principal Religious Orders ih 

THE United States. 

WriUen after the Names of the Members, 


Dominicans . 


Capucliins . 

Cistercians . 

• • 






Minor Conventuals 
Carmelites. Calced. 
" Discalced. 

Vincentians, or Laz- 
arists .... 

Sulpitians . . . 

Oblates of Mary Im- 
maculate . . . 

O. S. B. 
O.P. orO.S.D. 

O. S. F. 
O. S. A. 
iCap. or 
O. Min. Cap. 
O. Cist. 

Bedempt., or 
C. SS.B. 

Pass, or C. P. 
O. M. Conv. 

O. C. C. 
O.C.D. orDis. 



O. M. I. 


Ordinis Sancti Benedicti. 
Ordinis Praedicatorum ; or Or- 
dinis Sancti Dominici. 
Ordinis Sancti Francisci. 
Ordinis Sancti Augustini. 
Capacinus ; or, Ordinis Mino- 

rum Capucinorum. 
Ordinis Cisterciensis. 
Societatis Jesn. 
Kedemptorista ; or, Congrega 

tionis Sanctissimi Eedemp- 

Passionista ; or Congregationii 

Ordinis Minorum Conventual- 

Ordinis Carmelitarum Calcea* 

Ordinis Carmelitarum Discal 


Congregationis Missionum. 
(Societatis) Sancti Sulpitii. 

Ladies of the Sacred Heart Ladies of the S. H 

Nuns of tlie Visitation Nuns of the V. 

Sisters of Charity • • • Sisters of Char. 

Sisters of Notre Dame Sisters of N. D. 


II. English. 

[Owing to oar intimate social relations with the people of England, a knowled^rc 
of the proper forms and titles to be used in addressing rarioos officers and persons 
of rank in that country is with many almost a social necessity. To all, indeed, 
these forms most be a matter of interest, on account of the light they throw ol 
the history and literature, as well as the political and social life, of the Mother 
Country. We therefore devote two or three pages to a presentation of EngllsL 
Forms of Address and Salutation.] 

1. The Boyal Family. 

The King or the Queen, 

To the King's (or Queen's) Most Excellent Majesty. Sire, or Sir 
(or Madam) : — Most Ghraeioxu Sovereign : — Mai*/ it please your 
Majesty : — 

Sons and Da/ughterSf Brothers a/nd Sitters of Sovereigns. 

To His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. To Her Royal 
Highness the Dachess of York. Sir, or Madam: — May it please 
your Royal Highness : — 

Other Branches of the Royal Family, 

To His Highness the Dake of Cambridge. Or, To Her Highness 
the Princess Mary of Teck. Sir, or Madam: — May it please your 
Highness : — 

2. The Nobility and Gentry. 

A Duke or Duchess. 

■ To His Grace the Duke of Montrose. Or. To Her Grace the 
Duchess of Montrose. My Lord, or My Lady: — May it please 
your Grace: — 

A Marquis or Marchioness, 

To the Most Noble the Marquis (or Marchioness) of Lausdowne. 
My Lord (or My Lady) : — May it please your Lordship (or Lady- 
thip) : — 

An Earl or Countess, 

To the Right Honorable the Earl (or Countess) Runsell. My Lord 
(or My Lady) : — etc. 

A Viscount and a Baron. 

A Viscotmt (or Viscountess) and a Baron (or Baroness) are also 
addressed as Right Honorable, with the salutation, My Lord (or My 
Zady) : — etc. 


Baronets and Knights. 

To Sir A B , Bart., Piccadilly. Sir: — (Their wives aic 

addressed by the title of Lady.) 


To James Thomson, Esq. Sir : — (In regard to the use of this title 
in England, see remarks on page 240.) 

3. Officers in the Civil Service. 

A Member of Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council. 

To the Rt. Hon. Earl Granville, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs. Sir : — Right Hon. Sir : — or My 
Lord (as the case may require). 

An Amba4sador. 

To His Excellency the American (or other) Ambassador. Sir, or 
My Lord, or Your Excellency. 

A Judge. 

To the Rt. Hon. Sir George Cockburn, Lord Chief- Justice of Eng- 
land. My Lord : — May it please your Lordship : — 

The Lord Mayor of Lo^idon^ York^ or Dubliny and the Lord RUf 
vast of Edinburgh (during ofl&ce). 

To the Rt. Hon. A B , Lord Mayor of London. To the 

Rt. Hon. A B- — , Lord Provost of Edinburgh. My Lord: — 

May it please your Lordship. 

The Provost of every other town in Scotland is styled Honorable. 

The Mayors of all corporations (except the above-mentioned Lord 
Mayors), and the Sheriffs, Aldermen, and Recorder of London, are 
addressed Right Worshipful; and the Aldermen and Recorders oi 
other corporations, and the Justices of the Peace, Worshipful. Salu- 
tation, iS'ir.- — Your Worship: — 

4. The Parliament. 
House of Lords. 

To the Rt. Hon. the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in Parliament 

assembled. My Lords : — May it please your Lordships : — 

House of Commons. 

To the Hon. the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland. May it please your Honorable House : — 


6. The Clersry. 

An Archbishop, 

To His Grace the Archbishop of C . Or, To the Most Reverend 

Father in God, Archibald, Lord Archbishop of C . 2£y Lord: — 

May it please your Grace : — 

A BUhop, 

To the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of S . My Lord . — 

May it please your Lordship : — 

A Dean. 

To the Very Reverend Dean of C . Or, To the Reverend Dr. 

8cott, Dean of C . My Lord : — May it please your Lordship : — 


Archdeacons and ChanceUors in the same manner. The Rest oj the 
Clergy as in this country. IJ ennobled to be addressed thus : — 
To the Right Honorable and Reverend , etc. 

6. Military and Naval Officers. 

In addressing officers in the Army and Navy above the subaltern, 
their military rank should precede their names and civil positions, 
thus : — 

To Field-Marshal His Grace the Duke of W . My Lord, etc. 

In the Navy, Admirals are styled Right Honorable, and the rank 
of the flag follows their names and titles; thus: — 

To the Right Honorable the Earl of Eglintuu. G. C. B., Admiral 
of the Blue 

The other officers are addressed as In the army, with the addition 
of R. N. (Royal Navy) ; thus :— 

To Captain the Right Honorable the Earl of Egremont, R. N. 

Esquire. — This title is now popularly applied to all persons of 
respectability ; but it legally belongs to the following classes only : — 

The sons of Peers, whether known in common conversation as 
Lords or Houorables ; the eldest sons of Peers' sons and their eldest 
sons in perpetual succession ; all the sons of Baronets ; the Esquires 
of the Knights of the Bath ; Lords of Manors, chiefs of clans, and other 
tenants of the Crown in capite (these are Esquires by prescription); 
Esquires created to that rank by patent, and their eldest sons in per- 
petual succession ; Esquires by office, such as Justices of the Peaoe 


while on the roll; Mayoie o( towns during mtyoraltf , and SLerifii 
ofcountiM («ba retain tha tUle for life); HumberB of the Honn of 
Commoas; Barriotf re at Law ; and Bnclielurs of Divinity , Law. and 

All wbo, in commissions signed by the BOvereigD, are ever styled 
Sttqaire, retain ttiat designation for life^ 

IQBcellaneouB. — Uarried vomea are addreewd according to the 
rank of their husbands. 

The widow of a nohleman Is addressed in the title of her husband, 
with the addition of Dowager; as, "To the Right Honorable tlia 
Dowager Countess of Sinn hope." 

The title Lady is prefixed to the name of say wnraan wtioee boa- 
band is not of lowpr rank Ihan Rnight, or whose father nas a noble- 
man not lower than an Eacl. 

The ddat SODS of Dukes, Marquises, and Earls, bear, hy courtesy, 
the second title in their respective families. Their wives ace ad- 
dressed accordingly. 

The younger sons of Dukee and Marquises have the title of Lord, 
knd are addressed as Kight Honorable Lorda, — U> which is added the 
ChrietloD name. Their wives have the title of Lady, Bud are ad- 
dressed u Et. Hod. Ladies; aod. except when originally sH|ierior in 
ranb, take their husbands' Chri^ian names, not their own. The title 
Lady, and the address Rt. Hon. Lady, also belong ta all the daugh- 
ters of Dakes, Uarquises, and Earls: to which is aim added the 
CbristiaD name. 

Classified List of ABBREviATiONa 

(exclusive of those denotikg titles.) 

Use. — In formal letters and notes, especially those addressed tc 
persons of high position, few abbreviations, except those of social 
and scholastic titles, are allowable, as they imply haste, and are there- 
fore not quite respectful (see note on page 217, also on page 235). 
In familiar and business letters they may be used more freely, but 
only such as are authorized and will certainly be understood. 

Explahatioks.— The following list does not contain all the abbreviations that 
are tolerated, but only such as are most frequently used in writing. For others 
rarely used the reader is referred to the dictionary. 

In such lists, the abbreviation is generally given first, and then the explanation 
of it; bat in this list we reverse the order, giving first the woi-d and then the ab- 
breviation,— our object being to assist in yu-iting rather than in reading. 

Classification. — For convenience of reference we have divided 
the following list into seven classes: I. Geographical; II. Chro- 
nological; III. Kelating to Books and Literature; IV. 
Relating to Business; V. Relating to Law and Govern- 
ment; VI. Ecclesiastical; VII. Miscellaneous. 

For abbreviations of degrees and other titles, seepage 217 ; /or 
those used especially by Roman Catholics, seepage 235. 

I. Geographical Abbreviations. 

United States (U. 8.). 


Alabama . 
Colorado . 


Connecticut . . . Conn, or Ct 

Delaware Del. 

Florida Pla. 

Georgia Gki. 

Illinois m. 




Indiana Ind. 

Iowa* lo. 

Kansas ... . Kan. 

Kentucky Ky. 

Louisiana La. 

Maine* Me. 

Haiyland ^d. 

KassachuHetts .... Mass. 

Michigan Mich. 

Minnesota Minn. 

Mississippi Miss. 

Missouri Mo. 

Nebraska Neb. 

Nevada Nev. 

New Hampshire . . . N. H. 

New Jersey N. J. 

New York N. Y. 

North Carolina . . . . N. C. 
Ohio* ... .0. 

Oregon ... . . Or. 

Pennsylvania Pa. or Penn. 
Rhode Island . . . . B. I. 
South Carolina . . . . S. C. 

Tennessee Tenn. 

Texas* Tex. 

Vermont Vt. 

Virginia Va. 

West Virginia . . . W. Va. 
Wiiconsin Wis. 

TerrUoTiSs and Districts. 

Alaska Alas. 

Arizona Ter. . . . Ariz. Ter. 
Dakota Ter. . . . Dak. Ter. 
District of Columbia . . D. O. 
Idaho Territory . .Id. Ter. 
Indian Ter. Ind. Ter. or I. T. 

Montana Ter. . . Mon. Ter. 
New Mexico Ter. N. Mex. Ter. 
Utah Territory . . . . U. T. 
Washington Territory . W. T. 
Wyoming Territory Wyo. Ter. 


[Bat few abbreviations of cities bay* 
more than a local recognition. They 
are not allowable in superscriptions.] 

Baltimore . . . Bait, or Balto. 

Boston Bos. 

Mobile Mob. 

New Orleans N. O. 

New York N.Y.t 

Philadelphia . Phil, or Phila. 
Washington .... Wash. 


Alley Al. 

America, -can . Am. or Amer. 

Avenue Av. 

Borough . . . .Bor. orbor. 
County .... Co. or 00. 

Corner . Cor. 

Court House C. H. 

District Dist. 

East, E. ; West, W. ; North, N. ; 
South, S. 

Island Isl. 

Lake L. 

Mountain or Mount Mt.(px.Mt.s.) 

Railroad B. B. 

River B. 

Street St. (pi. Sts.) 

Township tp. 

Village .... Vil.orvU. 

* Such short words as these should rarely if ever be abbreviated, 
t New York, meaning the city, is rarely abbreviated, except when used aijeo* 
lively; as, "N. Y. Tribune." The name of the state is generally abbreviated. 



Foreiirn Countries. 

[We giye bat few under this heed, as In foreign oorrespondenoe names nbonld 
generally be written In ftilL] 

Scotland Scot 

South America ... 8. A. 
Sandwich Islands . . .S.Isl 

Spain Sp. 

West Indies . W. I. or W. Ind. 


Brussels Brus. 

Cambridge Cam. 

Dublin Dub. 

Edinburgh Bdin. 

(After titles . . . B.) 

Glasgow Olas. 

Gottingen Gk>tt. 

Leyden Leyd. 

London Lond. 

Leipsic Leip. 

Madrid Mad. 

Oxford, Oxonia . Ozf., Oxon. 

British America . . . 


Britain, British . . . 




Canada East .... 

C. B. 

Canada West .... 


England, English . . 


France, French . . . 


Germany, German . . 


Great Britain, . . . 




Italy, It. ; Italian . . 








New Brunswick . . . 

N. B. 

New Foundland . . . 

N. F. 

Prince Edward's Island 


Prussia, Prussian . . 


Russia, Russian . . . 


II. Chronological. 

Time of Day. 
Hour, h. ; minute, min. ; second. 

Forenoon (arde meridiem) A. M. 
Afternoon (poj^mmdtem) P.M. 
Noon ipuridiem) M. 


Day d. 

Sunday Sun. 

Monday Mon. 

Tuesday Tues. 

Wednesday Wed. 

Thursday Thurs. 

Friday Prid. 

Saturday Sat. 

Christmas Xmas. 


Month, months . . mo., mos. 
Last month {vltimo) . . ult. 
This month (ynataTU) . . inst. 
Next month {provmo) . pros 

Th£ Calendar. — 

January Jan. 

■Fe\ii\iW7 Feb. 



Kardi* Mar. 

April* Apr. 


June* Je. 

July* Jul. 

August AiiflT* 

September Sept. 

October Oct. 

November Nov. 

December Dec. 

Years and Eras, 
Year, years .... yr., jrra 
By the year {per annum) per an. 

Before Christ B. C. 

In the Christian Era {anno Dom- 
ini) A.D. 

In the year of Borne A. U. C- 

Century Cen. 

Old Style (before 1752) . O. S. 
New Style (since 1752) . . N. S. 

III. Relating to Books and Literature. 

Abbreviated abbr. 

Abridged abr. 

Anglo-Saxon A. -8., Anfir*-Saz. 
Anonymous .... Anon. 

Answer Ans. 

Article Art. 

Appendix App. 

Book Bk. or bk. 

Boards (binding) . . . bda. 

Bound bd. 

Half-bound .... hf.-bd. 
Capital letter . Cap. (pi. Caps.) 
Small Capitals S. Caps., 8. C. 

Chapter Chap. 

Compare {confer) . . . . cf . 

Cyclopsdia Cyc. 

Dictionary diet. 

edition. Edit., ed. ; editor . Ed. 
Cncyclopsedia . . . Bncyc. 
Et eastera (and other things) 

etc. I Ssc, 
Et sequentia (and what follows) 

et seq. 

Example Ez« 

Exempli gratia (for example) • 

Exception Ezc. 

Figure, figurative .... flgr. 
History, historical . . . Hist, 
/dem (same author) . Id. or id. 
Id est (that is) . . . . . i. e. 

Introduction Intr. 

Journal Jour. 

Library, librarian . . . Lib. 
Lower case (type) . . . . 1. c. 
Manuscript . . M8. (pi. M8S.) 

Observation Obs. 

Page, pages . . . P., p., pp. 
Paragraph .... par., %. 

Preface Pref. 

Postscript P. 8. (pi. P.8S.) 

Publisher, -lication, -lished pub. 

Question Ques. 

Query. . . . Qy.,qy.,or?. 
Quod vide (which see) . . q. v. 
Review Bev. 

* May is never abbreviated ; and March, Aprils June, and July, being ahor^ 
should generally be written in full. 




Rhetoric Rhet. 

Remark Bern. 

Section Sec. 

Shakspeare Shak. 

(Japplement . . . Sup. 

Synonyme ...... Syn. 

Transpose tr. 

Version Ver. 

Volume . . . Vol. (pi. vols. 
Wrong font (type) . . . w. f , 

A book formed 
sheets folded 


Siaea of Rookie 

n 2 leaves, is a folio » fol. 

n 4 leaves, is a quarto = 4to. 
n 8 leaves, is an octavo = 8vo. 
n 12 leaves, is a duodecimo = 12nio. 
n 16 leaves, is a 16ino« . 
n 18 leaves, is an ISmo. 
u 24 leaves, is a 24ino. 
n 32 leaves, is a 32ino. 
u 64 leaves, is a 64mo, 

IV. Relating to Business. 

Account acct., % 

Agent ....... Agt, 

Amount Aznt. 

At or to (mercantile) . . (^,a. 

Average av. 

Balance bal. 

Barrel, barrels bl., bbl. or bis. 

Bank bk. 

Brother, Brothers . Bro., Bros. 

Bushel bu., Bush. 

By the P.,p.,or^. 

Cashier Cash. 

Cleared old. 

Company Co. 

Collector Coll. 

Commerce Com.'' 

Credit, creditor Cr. 

Gent, cents .... ct.|Ct8. 

aerk elk. 

Cash on Delivery . . C.O.D. 

Ditto (the same) .... do. 

Discount disc 

Dividend div. 

Dollar, dollars . dol., dols., $. 

Dozen doz. 

Each ea. 

Foot, feet ft. 

Gross gro. 

Hundred hund. 

Hogshead ., hhd. 

Interest int. 

Journal Jour 

Measure meas 

Number, numbers . No.,Nos. 

Ounce oz. 

Pound, pounds . . . lb., lbs. 
Pennyweight . . pwt., dwt. 

Package pkgre. 

Peck, pecks . . . pk.,pk8. 
Pint, pints .... pt.,ptB 



Payment payt. 

Paiil pd. 

Per annum (by tlie yr.) per an. 
Per cent, (by the bund .) per cent. 
Quart, quarts . . . qt., qts. 
Quarter, quarters . . qr., qrs. 

V. Eelating to Law and Government. 

For abbreviations of official titles not here given, seepage 219. 

Received . . . 

. . . reed. 

Schooner . . . 

. . . Bchr. 

Sailed . . . . 

... Bid 

Tonnage . . . 

. . . ton 

Wftight. . . . 

.... wt. 

Yard, yards . . 

yd., yd«. 

Administrator . . . Admr. 

Advocate Adv. 

Attorney Atty. 

Against (t?«r««) . . . v. or vs. 

Alderman Aid. 

Assistant Asst. 

And others {et alii) . . et al. 

Clerk elk. 

Commissioner .... Com. 

Committee Com. 

Common Pleas . . . . C. P. 

Congress Congr. 

Constable Const. 

County Court C. C. 

Co. Commissioner (or Clk.) C. C. 
Court of Common Pleas C. C. P. 
Court of Sessions . . . C. S. 
Defendant. . . . deft.,dft. 

Deputy Dep. 

Department Dept. 

District Attorney . Dist. Atty. 
His (Her) Brit. Majesty H.B.M. 

His (Her) Majesty . . . H. M. 
His (Her) Roy. Highness H.B.H. 
House of Representatives H. B. 
Justice of the Peace . . J. P. 

Legislature Leg*. 

Member of Congress . . M. C. 
Nou prosequitur (he does not pros- 
ecute) .... Non pros. 
Member of Parliament , M. P. 
Notary Public . . . . N. P. 

Parliament Pari. 

Plaintiff plff. 

Post-Office P. O. 

Post-Master P. M. 

Public Document . Pub. Doc. 
Queen Victoria ( Victoria Regina) 

V. R. 
Right Honorablft . . Rt. Hon. 
Republic, Republican . . Rep. 

Solicitor Sol 

Superintendent .... Supt 
Surveyor General . Surv. Gen. 

VI. Ecclesiastical. 

For abbreviations of clerical offices and titles^ see pages 219, 228, 

By God's grace (Dti gratia) D. G. 
Church, churches . Ch., chs. 

Clergyman CI. 

Deacon . . . . Dea. 

God willing {Deo volente) D. V. 

Episcopal Epls. 

Evangelical .... Evangr. 
Ecclesiastical. . . ttbc.,eccl. 



Jesus the Sayiour of men {Jesxu 
hominum iSalvator) . I. H. S. 

Jesus of Isazareth, King of the 
Jews {Jestis Hazarenus Rex Ju- 
(keorum) . . . I. N. B. I. 

Methodist Meth. 

Methodist Episcopal . . M. B. 

Protestant Prot. 

Protestant Episcopal . . P. E. 
Presbyterian .... Presb. 
Reformed, Keformation . Ref. 
Roman Catholic . Bom. Cath. 

>VII. Miscellaneous. — (Unclassified.) 

Ad libitum (at pleasure) 
Arithmetic . . 
Astronomy . . 
JEtatis (of age) . 
Botany . . . 
Chemistry . . 
College . . . 
Corresponding Sec 
Delineavit (he drew 
Errors excepted 
Executive Com. 

ad lib. 
. Arch. 
. Arith. 


. Chem. 

. OoU. 

Cor. Sec. 

it) . . del. 

Exec. Com. 

Fahrenheit (thermom.) . Fahr. 
For example [exempli gratia) 

e. B*f ojl* 0. 

Fecit (he did it) 
Grammar . . 
Geography . 
Geoiiuttry . . 

. fee. 






Hie jace.t sepultus (here he lies 
buried) H. J. 8. 

Hie reguiescat in pace (here he 
rests in peace) H. B. I. P. 

Incognito (unknown) . .Incogr. 

In transitu (in the passage) 

in trans. 
amor Jr. or Jun. 

Military Mil. 

Mythology Myth. 

National, natural . . . Nat. 
Nemina contradicente (no one 
contradicting) . Nem. Con. 
Nemint dissentiente (no one dis- 
senting) . . . Nem. diss. 
Non sequitur (it does not follow) 

non seq. 
Nota Rene (note well) N. B. 

Number (numero) No. (pi. Nos.) 

Obit (he died) ob. 

Objection, objective, etc. . obj. 

Obedient obt. 

Optics Opt. 

Ornithology .... Omith. 

Philosophy Phil. 

Phonography . . . Phonogr- 
Phrenology .... Phren. 

Physiology Phys. 

Pinxit (he painted it) pinx. 

Pro tempore (for the time) 

pro tem. 
Recording Secretary . Bee. Sec. 

Regiment Begrt. 

Secretary Sec. 

Scidpsit (he engr. it) so., sculp. 

Senior Sr., sen. 

Senator Sen 

Servant Servt. 

Turn over ..... T. O. 
Videlicet (namely) .... viz. 
Zoology ZooJ 

Foreign Words and Phrases. 

For the convenience of writers and readers, we give below a collec* 
tion of sach foreign words and phrases as are most frequently used in 
letters and conversation by educated people. 

(J''., French ; L., 

Ah initio [L.], from the beginning. 
Ab uno dince (ymnes [L.], from one 

you may judge of all. 
Ad infinitum [L.]. to infinity. 
Ad interim [L.], meanwhile. 
Ad libitum [L.], at pleasure. 
Ad nauseam [L.], to nausea. 
Affaire d'am^ur [F.], a love affair. 
Affaire d'honneur [F.], an affair 

of honor. 
Affaire du coeur [F.], an affair of 

the heart. 
Aufait [F.], skilful, expert. 
A la bonne heure [F,], in the nick 

of time. 
A la mode [F.], in the fashion. 
Alter ego [L.], my other self. 
Argumentum ad hominem [L.], ar- 
gument applied to the person. 
Are est celare artem [L.], the art is 

to conceal art. 
Au revoir [F.], adieu till we meet 

Bbl masque [F.]. a masquerade 


Latin; it., Italian.) 

£a» bleu [P.], blue-stocking — lite- 
rary woman. 
Beau monde [F.], the gay world. 
Bete noir [F.], a black beast; a 

Blasi [F.], worn out by excesses. 
Bonne bov>che [F.], a delicate bit. 
Bon mot [F.], a witty saying. 
Bon ton [F.], fashionable society. 
Cacoethcs loquendi [L.], a rage for 

Cacoethes scribendi [L.], a rage for 

Coeteris paribus [L.], other things 

being equal. 
Cajt [F.], a coffee-house. 
Carte blanche [F.], a blank sheet; 

permission to 'do as one chooses 
CheJ d'csuwe [F.], a masterpiece. 
Chdre amie [F.], dear friend (fern.) 
Ci-devant [F.], former; formerly. 
Comme ilfaut [F.], as it should be. 
Compagnon de voyage [F.], 9 

travelling companion. 
Con am,ore [L.], with love. 




Contretemps [F.], a mishap. 

Corrigenda [L.], words to be al- 

Costume de rigueur [F.], full dress, 
in character. 

Coideur de rose [F.]. rose-color; 
flattering hue. 

Covpde grace [F.], finishing stroke. 

Coup de soleil [F.], sunstroke. 

Coup d'Hat [F.], a stroke of state- 

Coup d'oeil [F.], a rapid glance. 

Cui bono [L.], for whose benefit? 
of what use ? 

Cum grano saUs [L.], with some 
grains of salt — some allowance. 

Dejaeto [L.], in reality. 

De gustibus iwn dUputandum [L.], 
there is no disputing about 

De mortuis ml nisi bonum [L.]. say 
of the dead nothing but good. 

Demi-monde [F.], depraved fe- 

Denouement [¥.], the ending. 

De novo [L.], anew. 

Dernier ressort [F.], a last resort. 

Dleu et mjon droit [F.], God and 
my right. 

Distingui [F.J, distinguished. 

Dolce far niente [It.], sweet idleness 

Double entendre [F.], an ambigu- 
ous expression. 

Douceur [F.], a bribe. 

Dramatis persona [L.], characters 
of the drama. 

DuUe et decorum est pro patrla 
mori [L.], it is sweet and honor- 
able to die for one's country 

JEUte [F.], the choice part. 
Embonpoint [F.J. plumpness. 
En dishabiUi [F.], in undress, oi 

home dress. 
En passant [F.], in passing. 
Enlrte [F.], admittance; dishes 

of the first course. 
Entre nous [F.], between us. 
En ville [F.], in the town or city 

= E.V. 
Ergo [L.], therefore. 
Esto perpetua [L.], may it last 

for ever. 
Eacile pri7icq)s [L.], the admitted 

Eait accompli [¥.], a thing already 

Fav^ pas [F.], a false step; a 

woman's loss of character. 
FiCe cfiampHre [F.], a rural en- 
Festina lente [L.], hasten slowly. 
Fidus Achates [L.], a true friend. 
IfW£ de chambre [F.], a chamber- 
Hinc iUcB lachrymoe [L.], henco 

these tears. 
Homme d' esprit [F.], a man of 

Sors de combat [F.], not in a 

condition to fight. 
Ibidem [L.], in the same place ^ 

Id omne genus [L.], all of that 

In articulo mortis [L.], at the 

point of death. 
In extremis [L.], at the point of 




In exteiuo [L.], at full length. 

In hoe signo vincea [L.], under 
this standard thou shalt con- 

In locoparenti8 [L.], in place of a 

In mediaa res [L.], in the midst 
of things. 

Inmemoriam [L.], in memory. 

In propria persona [L.], in person. 

Inter alia [L.],among other things. 

Inter nos [L.], among ourselves. 

Inter se [L.], among themselves. 

In toto [L.], in the whole. 

In vino Veritas [L.], in wine there 
is truth (a drunken man tells 
the truth). 

Ipse dixit [L.}, a dogmatic asser- 

Ipsissima verba [L.], the very 
. words. 

Jeu de mots [F.], a play upoA 
words ; a pun. 

Jeu d' esprit [F.], a witticism. 

Labor omnia vincU [L.], labor 
conquers all things. 

Lapsus calami [L.], a slip of the 

Lapsus lingucB [L.], a slip of the 

Lares et penates [L.], household 
gods; home. 

Lex scripta [L.], the written law. 

Lex non scripta [L.], the unwrit- 
ten law. 

Lex talionis [L.], the law of retal- 

Liaison [F.], an amour. 

Libretto [It.], a little (opera) book. 

Litera scripta manet [L.], what is 
written remains. 

Locum tenens [L.], a proxy. 

Ma chire [F.], my dear (lo n 
woman). * 

Magnum opus [L.], a great work 

Mai apropos [F.], ill timed. 

Mauvaise honte [F.], false modesty. 

Mens Sana in corpore sano [L.], a 
sound mind in a sound body. 

Misalliance [F.], marrying a per- 
son below one's self. 

Meum et tuum [L.], mine and 

Mon eher [F.], my dear (to a 

Moreeau [¥.], a small piece; pi. 

Mutatis mutandis [L.]. the neces- 
sary change being made. 

iV<g« [F.]. born — family name. 

Ne sutor ultra crepidam [L.], the 
shoemaker should not go beyond 
his last (a person should stick 
to his calling). 

Nil desperandum [L.], never de- 

N'importe [F.], it matters not. 

Nolens volens [L.], willing or un- 

Norn de plume [F.J, a writer's as- 
sumed name. 

Nov^ verrons [F.], we shall see. 

On dit [F.], they say. 

Orapro nobis [L.], pray for us. 

tempora ! mares! [L.], the 
times ! the manners ! 

Otium cum dignitate [L ], leisure 
with dignity. 



Par excellence [F.], by way of em- 

Par nobile fratrum [L.], a noble 
pair of brothers. 

Particepa crimini^[L.], an accom- 
plice in the crime. 

Peccavi [L.], I have sinned. 

Penchant [F.], inclination. 

Per ae [L.], by itself. 

Petitio prineipii [L.], a begging of 
the question. 

Poeta naaeitur, non fit [L.], the 
poet is born, not made. 

Pons asinorum [L.], bridge of 

Pour prendre eongi [F.], to take 
leave-P. P. C. 

QuarUum auffidt [L.], it is enough. 

Quidnunc [L.], what now ? a news- 

Quid pro quo [L.], an equiva- 

Qui vivef [F.], who goes there? 
on the alert. 

Quondam [L.], former. . 

Para avis [L.], a rare bird. 

Picherch^ [F.], rare, exquisite. 

Requiescat in pace [L.], rest in 

lUpondez f'il vous platt [F.], an- 
swer if you please=R. S. V. P. 

Resurgam [L.]. I shall rise again. 

Rohe de chajnhre [F.], a dressing- 

Sangfroid [F.]- indifference. 

Sans ctrtmonie [F.], without cer- 

Sans etdotte [F.], without breeches ; 
a ra^-a-muffin. 

Scan. mag. — scandalum magna- 

turn [L.], scandal of high per- 
Sic transit gloria mundi [L.], thus 

passes the glory of the world. 
Soi disant [¥.], self-called, pre 

Soirie dansante [F.] .dancing party. 
Sotto voce [It.], in a low voice. 
Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re 

[L.], gentle in manner, resolute 

in deed. 
Sub rosa [L.], under the rose ; t. e, 

Sui generis [L.], of a particular 

Tableau vivant [F.], a picture re- 
presented by living persons. 
Tempusjugit [L.], time flies. 
Terra firma [L.], firm ground. 
Terra incognita [L.], an unknown 

Tout ensemble [F.] , the whole taken 

Ut infra [L.], as cited below. 
Ut supra [L.], as above. 
Valet de chamhre [F.], a valet, b 

body servant. 
Verbatim et literatim [L.]. word 

for word and letter for letter. 
Vis A vis [F.], face to face. 
Viva voce [L.], by word of mouth. 
Vive la ripublique [F.]. long live 

the republic. 
Vive le roi [F.]. long live the king. 
Vox et prceterea nihil [L.], sound 

and nothing more. 
Voxpopuli, vox Dei [L.], the voice 

of the people the voice of Gkni 

Postal Information. 



Bates of Domestio Postsflre. 

(.Fbr aU Flacet in the United SUUes and Qxnada.) 

Classes. — Mailable matter is divided into four classes, known 
respectively as Mnt-Class, Second-Class, Third-Class, and Fourth- 
Class matter. 

First-Class Mattes. 


This class embraces all packages sealed against inspection ; also all 
letters, drawings, plans, designs, diplomas, and other matter wholly 
or partly in writing, except as stated below. (See Writing Allowable, 
ander each of the other classes.) 

The rate of postage on matter of the first class is three cents for 
wery half ounce or fraction thereof, except drop-letters and postal 
cards. {Two cents for ev«ry half ounce, after July 1, 1883.) 

Drop'Lettert.— The postage on local or drop-letters at letter-carrier offloos ia two 
eentafor every half ounce or fraction thereof; at other oflSces, one cent. 

PoaUU Gnrd*.— Postal cards have the stamp imprinted on them, and require no 
further postage. They are treated by postmasters the same as sealed letters, ex- 
cept that they are in no case returned to the writers. Unclaimed postal cards, if 
wholly written, are sent to the dead-letter office ; if printed or partly written, 
they are put with the waste paper. An ordinary business-card may be sent as a 
postal card if prepaid by a one-cent stamp ; but it must contain no writing except 
the address. Nothing must be written upon the face of a postal card except the ad- 
dress. Anything else so written subjects it to letter postage. Nor is it allowable 
to paste, gum, or attach anything to a postal card other than a slip containing the 
printed address. 

Second-Class Matter. 

This class embraces all newspapers and other periodicals regularly 
issued from a known office of publication not less than four times a 
year and numbered consecutively, without addition by writing. 

The rate of postage on matter of the second class (except county 
papers) is two cents a pound, in bulk, prepaid by stamps prepared for 
the purpose. 


OouHty JFVapers.— Newspapers are sent— one copy to each actual subscriber Uring 
within the county of publication— free of postage. 

WriHng AllovHMe.—BUla, receipts, and orders for subscription maj be eneloeed 
in seoond-dass matter, but no other writing is allowable except the address (»f the 

Thied Class Mattee. 

This class embraces books (printed and blank), ti^ansient news- 
papers and other periodicals, circulars, proof-sheets and corrected 
proof-sheets and manascript accompanying the same, valentines, 
hand-bills, posters, lithographs, engravings, heliotypes, hectograph- 
prints, photographs, printed blanks and cards, tags, tickets, and 
other matter the valae of which depends on the printing. It must 
in all cases be so wrapped that the contents may be inspected with- 
out destroying the wrapper. 

The rate of postage on matter of the third class is one cent for every 
two ounces or fraction thereof. , 

Writing AUowMe.— The sender may correct a typographical error, or mark a 
passage to which he desires to call attention ; may write upon the cover or blank 
leaves of a book or other printed' matter a simple dedication or inscription ; and 
may write upon the matter itself or upon the wrapper his name or address with 
the word " From " above or before the same. Any other writing subjects the mat- 
ter to letter postage. 

Weight AUov>aile.—Th9 weight of a single package is limited to four pound$. A 
single volume of a book and publio documents may, however, exceed that weight. 

Foueth-Class Mattee. 

This class embraces all articles of merchandise that are mailable, 
envelopes in quantity with printing thereon, blank bills and letter- 
heads, blank cards, card-board and other flexible materials, flexible 
patterns, blank letter-paper and envelopes, models, sample cards, 
samples, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, paintings in oil or water-color, 
and all mailable matter not included in the other classes. It must in 
all cases be so wrapped that the contents may be inspected ; otherwise 
it will be rated as first-class matter. 

Thd rate of postage on matter of the fourth class is one cent for every 

ounce or fraction thereof. To CaTUida, ten cents for every eight 

ounces, prepaid by stamps. 

Writing Allowable.— The sender may write upon the package his own name and 
address, preceded by the word " From," and also the number and names of the 
articlea encloaed, with a mark or number attached by card or label for identifloa« 
r. Anjr other writing subjects the package lo \eUeT -<^\&iiy6. 

*Fe^kt AlUnoable.—The weight of a single package \a \vra\\*A. \.o tovvr \><ixxTtt^. • 


Registry. — First-, third-, and fourth-class matter may be regis- 
tered for a fee of ten cents in addition to the regular postage. 

Rates at Letteb-Cabrier Offices. — The postage on newspapers 
(except weeklies) deposited in a letter-carrier office for local delivery 
is as follows : — 

Od fi«w«pap«re (except weeklies), whether regular or transient, and without 
regard to weight or frequency of issue, one eent each. On periodicals (other than 
newspapers) not exceeding two ounces in weight, one cent each; exceeding two 
ounces in weight, two eenU each. 

Weekly Newapapen (excepted above) to regular Hubsoribers, two cents per pound, 
whether delivered through carriers, boxes, or general delivery. 

(For drop-letters, see under First- Class Matter.) 

Unmailable Matteb. — Liquids, poisons, explosive and inflam- 
mable articles, fruits or vegetable matter, confectionery pastes or con- 
fections, substances exhaling a bad odor, and every letter or postal 
card upon which indecent delineations or language is written or- 
printed, and all matter relating to lotteries, gift concerts, and other 
fraudulent schemes, also anything that would cut or injure the mail- 
bag, are unmailable. 

Bates of Foreigrn Postagre. 

Most of the civilized nations of the world have formed themselves, 
for postal purposes, into an association known as the Universal Postal 
Union. Mailable matter may be sent to the principal cities and towns 
of all the countries and colonies embraced in this Union, at the fol- 
lowing rates : Letters, five cents for each half ounce, prepayment op- 
tional ; Postal Cards, each two cents ; Newspapers and other printed 
matter, one cent for every two ounces; Samples of Merchandise, one 
cent for every two ounces. The Registry fee for letters and pack- 
ages is uniformly ten cents in addition to postage. 

Among the countries in the Universal Postal Union, besides the 
United States and Canada, are the following: Argentine Republic, 
Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, British India, Bulgaria, Ceylon, 
Chili. Denmark, Egypt, France and Colonies. Germany, Great Britain 
and Ireland, Greece, Hong Kong (China), Italy, Jamaica, Japan. Mex- 
ico, Netherlands and Colonies, Newfoundland, Norway, Persia, Peru, 
Portugal and Colonies, Russia, Spain and Colonies, Sweden, Switzer- 
land, Turkey, Uruguay, Venezuela. 

For rates of postage to other countries, see Postal Ouide, or inquire of a post* 



Sendiner Money. 

There are two safe ways of sending money by mail, viz. : 1. By 
Registered Letter; 2. By Money Order. 

J . By Registered Letter. — A letter to any part of the U. S... 
containing money or other mailable matter of value, may be regis 
terod at any office on the payment of a fee of 10 cents in addition tc 
the usual postage. 

The rate of registry to foreign countries is 10 cents in addition tc 
the regular postage (see table on page 255). 

A letter to be registered should be sealed by the sender, and the 
postmaster has no right to inquire as to the contents. 

The p. O. Department is not legally liable for the loss of registered matter; but 
owing to the extraordinary safeguards thrown around such matter its safe delivery 
is almost certain. 

2. By Money-Order. — The best and safest way to send small sums 
of money is by a postal money-order, which may be obtained at any 
" money-order office," payable at any other such office. (A list of 
such offices may be seen at any post-office.) Indeed money so sent is 
absolutely safe,, as the Post-Office Department is liable for the 

Domestic Money-Orders. — The charges for orders on United States 
offices are as follows : — 

For orders not exceeding |15 .10 cents. 

Over $15 and not exceeding |30 ...... 15 cents. 

Over $30 and not exceeding $40 ...... 20 cents. 

Over $40 and not exceeding $50 25 cents. 

When a larger sum than fifty dollars is required, additional orders 
tc make it up must be obtained. But postmasters are not allowed to 
BBue ou the same day to the same remitter, and in favor of the same 
payee, more than three money orders payable at the same office. 

If a money-order is lost, another may be obtained free of charge 
on application. 

The given names of both the remitter and payee should be given in an appli* 
eaMon for a money order; and married women should be described by their own 
BMmea, not those of their husbands. 


Foreign Money-Orders. — Money may be sent in the same manner 
to and from the following countries: Great Britain and Ireland, Ger- 
many, and Switzerland. This exchange of money-orders is effected 
through the agency of " International Exchange Offices," of which 
New York is the office on the part of the United States. Hence an 
international money-order is not drawn by a postmaster in one coun 
try directly upon a postmaster in the other, but must be drawn upon 
the " International Exchange Office." The offices at which foreign 
money-orders may be obtained may be ascertained by inquiry of any 
postmaster. The charges are as follows : — 

On British, Swiss, and Italian post-offices : — 

For orders not exceeding |10 25 cents. 

Over $15 and not exceeding |20 50 cents. 

Over $20 and not exceeding $30 ...... 75 cents. 

Over $30 and not exceeding $40 fl.OO 

Over $40 and not exceeding $50 1.25 

On Canadian post-offices : — 

For orders not exceeding $10 20 cents. 

Over $10 and not exceeding $20 40 cents. 

Over $20 and not exceeding $30 60 cents. 

Over $30 and not exceeding $40 . 80 cents. 

Over $40 and not exceeding $50 . . . . $1.00 

On German post-offices : — 

For orders not exceeding $5 15 cents. 

Over $5 and not exceeding $10 25 cents. 

Over $10 and not exceeding $20 50 cents. 

Over $20 and not exceeding $30 75 cents. 

Over $30 and not exceeding $40 $1.00 

Over $40 and not exceeding $50 1.25 

One pound sterling (£1) is equal to $4.86 in gold, and one thaler 
(German) is equal to 71 cents in gold. One dollar (gold) is equal to 5 
francs 15 centimes (Swiss). 

Stamped Envelopes and Wrapper^. 

Stamped envelopes, letter-size, may be obtained of postmasters at 
various prices, according to quality and denomination. Three cent 
envelopes cost from 80 to 83 cents per pack (25). or $32 to $33.20 per 




Special Request Envelopes. — When ordered in quantities of 500 and 
upward, the Department will, if desired, print on the upper left-hund 
corner, witfioul additional charge, the name and residence of the par- 
lies ordering, with a request to return if unclaimed in a certain time 
These "Special Request Envelopes" must in all cases be ordered 
from the postmaster, and not from the Department. 

Stamped newipaper wrappers may also be obtained at a coat a little 
more than the value of the stamps printed on them. 

The postage on stamped envelopes and torappers foiled in directing 
will be refunded in stamps by a postmaster, if he is satisfied that they 
have never been sent by mail, and if presented in a whole condition. 

Miscellaneous Facts and SuersrestiGns. 

Observe carefully the following facts and suggestions, in addition 
to those given above : — 

1. See thai every letter and package sent by mail is securely folded and fastened. 
Use only good strong envelopes and wrappers. Heavy articles should be secured 
with a string. 

2. Never send money (except in very small amoitnts) or other articles of value 
in an unregistered letter. 

3. See that every letter contains your full name and directions (inside), as 
advised in Part I. of this work. / 

L See that the outside address is full and plainly written, as advised on pages 
57-63. On foreign lettei-s, not only the name of the town or city, but also the 
name of the country, should be written. Letters directed to "London" are often 
sent to London, Canada. 

ft. When dropping a letter or paper into a street letter-box, see that it does not 
stick fast. 

6. Cut stamps, stamps cut from stamped envelopes, mutilated postage stamps, 
and internal revenue stamps, cannot be acciepted in payment of postage. 

7. To use or attempt to use a stamp that has already been used, is punishable by 
a One of fifty dollars. 

■^ 8. To insure the forwarding of a letter, it must have not less than three cents 
affixed in postage stamps. Always be sure to affix stamps enough. In doubtful 
jases put on another. 

9. A double rate of six cents for each half ounce is chargeable on every letter 
that reaches its destination without having been tally prepaid— deducting the 
*alue of the stamp affixed. 

10. To enclose any written matter in prin^d matter subjects the mailing party 
to a fine of fiye dp^a|»^ upl^9« f?^^ f^T^J a4<lr^jdd pays letter postage on the 
pMkag4. / 

Business Forms. 

In this article we give forms of the following business papers, 
which are in general nse, and are intimately connected with the sub- 
ject of letter-writing, viz.: I. Receipts; II. Notes; III. Dub 
Bills; IV. Deafts; V. Orders. 


A receipt should always be given and required for any money or other article of 
value paid or deposited. Many misunderstandings, losses, and lawsuits may thus 
be prevented. 

1. Money on Account. 

Beceived, Philadelphia, April 1, 1875, of John Paywell, One Sun- 
dred and Fifty ^^ Dollars on account. 

$150^Q John WxUon & Co. 

The above form is used when money is paid on an unsettled account. When 
the money closes an account, substitute for "on account," the words, "in full of 
balance on settlement," as in (2). If the payment is in discharge of aU indebted- 
ness, use the words, " in full of all demandt" or simply "in fbll." 

In all hxuineM pa/pen, the number should always be expressed in loonU. The 
number of cents is generally expressed ft*actionally. The entire amount should 
also be expressed in figures, above or below. 

2. Receipt in Full. 

Philadelphia, May 6, 1876. 
Received of P. W. Jlies^nd, Trec^surer of the State Normal 
School, MiUersviUe, Pa., Two J^undxed ax^ Seventy-Five Dollars, in 
full of halar\fCe on settlement. 

^275. Murray d Brown, 

per J. JS, 

The date may be written at the top as in (2). or be incorporated in the sentence 
as in (1). In written receipts the latter practice is preferable. 

The account on which the money is paid may be stated, as in the following: — 



3. On Account of SundrieB. 

Received, MiUersviUe, Dec. 4, 1875, of A B , Treamrei 

of the Board of School Directors, One Hundred Dollars, on account of 
salary as teacher (or as the case may be). 

flOO. John WUUanu. 

4. Receipt endorsed on a Note. 

Received, April 1, 1876, on the within note. One Hundred a'sd 
Seventy-five Dollars. 

$175. Charles Carroll <fe Co. 

6. Receipt for Merchandise. 

Received, MiU'ersviUe, Pa., Feb. 7, 1876, of Carbon & Co., per 

John Smith, teamster, two ions of coal. 

S. O. Behmer, Steward. 

Promissory Notes, 

1. Individual (on Demand). 

$250. Indiana, Pa., June 5, 1876. 

On demand I promise to pay to A B , or order, Two Sun' 

dred and Fifty Dollars, without defalcation, for value received. 

Jam^ WestfaU. 

A note payable to *'A B-^ or order," as above, is negotuMe ; that is, it may 

b« transferred to another by the person named in the note, by his writing hi» 
name across the back. This is a general endorsement. It may be endorsed, " Pay 

to C— D— — or order (or bearer)." A note payable " to A— ■ B or bearer," 

may be transferred without endorsement 

In Pennsylvania and New Jersey the words, "without defalcation," are re- 
quired ; and in Missouri, the words, *' negotiable and payable without defalcation 
or discount." lu othei states these phrases are unnecessary, though not detri- 

2. Principal and Surety Note (time, with interest). 

f 1500. Boston, July 4, 1876 

Sixty days after date, I promise to pqy to James Livingston, or 
order. Sixty-five Hundred DoUafs loith interest, value received. 

Surety • Am^s Lawrence. 

f Jamcs Livingston. 

A surety note should be made payable to the order of the surety, who should 
endorse it on the back to the order of the endorsee or creditor. It is held that 
a note made in favor of the creditor and endorsed by the surety does not bina 
the latter to the payment of the debt. 


3. Joint Note (time, payable at Bank). 

fSOO. Chicago, Jan. 26, 1876, 

Thirty days ajter date, we promise to pay Richard Cox, or order, ai 
the Fixst National Bank of Chicago, Five Hundred Dollars, Jor valu* 
received. John Wentworth. 

Albert Itamsay. 

4. Joint and Several (demand, with Interest). 

$7525 f^. Philadelphia, January 1, 1876. 

On demand, for value received, we jointly and severally prmnise to 
pay John Brown &Co.,or order, Seventy -five Hundred and Tut'rjnty 
five -f^ Dollars unth interest, vnthout defalcation. 

Wm. Lincoln. 
Charles Oollin«. 

John WUkins. 
Ihie Bills. 

A due bUl should always be given and required for mcn«9y leci and ibr any busi- 
ness accommodation or indebtedness, cnless a promissory note or other obligation 
b used, M a memorandum of the transaction. The consideration for which a due 
bill is given should always be stated in the paper itself. 

1. For Money. 

flOO. MllersvUle. Pa., Apr. 1, 1875. 

Due Richard Ross, on demand, One Hundred Dollars, for value 
received (or for labor done, or for cash borrowed, or as the case may 
be). John Duncan, 

2. For Merchandise. 
f25^. Albany, July 1, 1874- 

Due John Smith, or bearer, Twenty-jvoe ^^ Dollars for work 
done, payable, on demand, in Merchandise at our store. 

Robert Johnson <i Oo. 


(Sometimes called " Inland Bills of Exchange.") 

1. Time Draft. 

$125^. Philadelphia, Nov. 25, 1876. 

At ten days^ sight pay to the order of William Wheeler One Hun- 
dred and Twenty five -f^ Dollars, value received, and charge to mu 
account. Jones, Jenkins dt Oo. 

To James Carrington, 

Lancaster, Pa. 



The signer of a draft is the dxavatr^ the one to whom it is directed is the droieee 
the one to whom the money is payable is the payee. 

A draft payable at right must be paid when presented. If it is payable at ten 
days' right (as above), it is due ten days (with three days giace addevl) after it lias 
been accepted by the drawee. In the case supposed in the above form, the payee 
(Wheeler) takes the draft |o the drawee (Carrington); and if the latter honors 
it, he writes ** accepted" across the face, with his name and the date, and the 
paper is then known as an (ueeptance, and is in eflTecl a promissory note payable in 
ten days. Tiuie drafts may be made payable a certain number of davs aflei daU 
as well as after sight. 

2. Check. 


No, 1776. 

Baltimore, June 30, 1875, 

torts, S^nbers, 

Pay to Oanningha/rn, Schofield <& Co., or Order, 

One Hundred and Mfty-five -^-^-^ Dollars. 

$155r^^ James Buckingham. 

A ekuh is essentially a kind of draft, and is here so regarded. A check must 
have affixed to it a two-cent revenue stamp, cancelled by the drawer. Checka 
should invariably be dated on the day on which they are drawn. Unless the 
check is to be presented immediately and in person, it should not be made pay- 
able to hearer. Most checks are now printed " Pay to the order of /' etc 


1. For Money. 

Troy, N. Y., May 1, 1875. 
Mr. John Hoover, 

Please pay John Brown One Hundred and Thirty 

DoUars on my account 

flSO. Wm. Carter. 

2. For Merchandise. 

Trenton,, N. J., Oct. IS, 1875. 
Mr. Wm. Wilkins. 

Please pay John Myers One Hundred and Fifty -^/^ 

DoUars in Merchandise and charge to my account. 

0150^. Thomas Miller. 

General Index. 

Abbbkviatiohs : Classified List of, 242; 

of Titles, 217 ; Catholic, 235. 
Acceptances aud Regrets, 152. 
Accuracy, Grammatical, 78. 
Address: Inside, 25, 48: Outside, 57. 

Forms of: American, 223; £Dglish,238. 
Affection in Letters, 92. 
Anniversaries, College and Society, 149. 
Anniversary Weddings, 143. 
Announcements of Marriage, 143. 
Answers: to Letters, 85; to Notes, 138, 

145, 152. 
Application, Letters of. 111. 

Balls, Invitations to, 148. 

Beginning of Letters, 39, 87, 113. 

Betrothal Cards, 162. 

Bibliography of Letters, 124. 

Bird'8-Eye View of the Field of Letters, 

Body of Letters, 39. 

Business Letters : Style of, 108; of In- 
troduction, 1U9; of Credit, 110; of Ap- 
plication, 111 ; of Recommendation, 
112; Mercantile, 114; Miscellaneous, 

Business Cards, 168. 

Business Forms: Receipts, 259; Notes; 
260; Due Bills, 261; Drafts, 261; Or- 
iers, 262. 

(/ARDS : Ceremonial, 161 ; Wedding, 162 ; 

Betrothal, 162; Presentation, 163; 

Memorial, 163; Informal Reception, 

164 ; Visiting, 164 ; Professional and 

Official, 168 ; Business, 168. 
Capitals: Use of, 76; Rules for, 175. 
Classification of Letters, 12 ; of Notes, 

135; of Cards, 160. 
Clearness, 79. 
Complimentary Close, 44. 
CoUei^e Anniversaries, 149 

Concltisions of Letters, 44; Catholic 

forms o^ 228. 
Condolence: Letters of, 105; Cards ol^ 

Congratulation: Letters o^ 102; Cards 

of, 165. 
Construction of Sentences, 78. 
•Copies of Letters, 90. 
Credit, Letters of, 110. 

Dklivkby of Notxs, 158. 
Deliberation in writing letters, 89. 
Diction, 77. 
Dinners, Invitations to, 145. 

Ending of Lkttxbs, 44, 87. 

Envelopes : of Letters, 17 ; of Notes and 

Cards, 136, 161 ; Special Request, 63; 

Addressed, 63. 
Expression in composition, 72. 

Familiar Lkttkrs, 92 ; Notes, 151, 155. 
Figures of Rhetoric in Letters, 83. 
Folding : of Letters, 54 ; of Notes, 136, 

Foreign Words, 77 ; List of Words and 

Phrases, 249 ; French Phrases, 1.37. 
Forms of Address and Salutation: 
* American. 223 ; English, 238. 

Glxaninos ih thx Fikld of Lxttxks. 
Burns's Idea of a Oood Wife, Let us 
Love one Another, The Lot of Every 
Public Man, Religious Comfort, 127; 
Wordsworth's Sister, Leniency to the 
Living, Morning, Comfort derived 
from Literature, 128; The Feast of 
Reason, Pope's Birthday, An Editor's 
Responsibilities, 129; Making the 
Best of our Friends, Woman 'd Posi- 
tion, 130; The End ©f the World, 
Never Contradict, 131 •, The Folly of 
War, The Greatest of all Blessings, In- 



dolence. Angel's Work, 132; The 
Secret of Happiness, Inarticulate (tor- 
rows. To be a Poet is to be a Man, 133 ; 
Patient Endurance, Grief and Grat- 
itude over the Dead, The Virtues of 
Oratory, 134. 

Hkadivo ov Lkttxrs, 19. 


Ink, 18. 

Introduction of Letters, 25. 
Introduction, Letters of, 99, 109. 
Insertion of the Letter, 56. 
Invention in composition, 71. 
Invitations, 138, 161. 
Invoice, 117. 

Lrttkbs: Private, 12; Public, 14. 
Letters of Application, 111 ; of Busi- 
ness, 13, 108; of Condolence, IU5; of 
Congratulation, 102; of Credit, 110; 
Familiar, 92; of Introduction, 99, 109; 
Mercantile, 114; Miscellaneous, 119; 
of Recommendation, 112; Rhetoric 
of, 70. 

Letter Writers, 124. 

Literature of Letters, 121. 

List of Titles, 216 ; of Abbreviations, 248. 

Little Things, 92. 

Lines on Paper, 17. 

Margin. 39. 

Materials : of Letters, 15 ; of Notes, 136 ; 
of Cards, 161.. 

Memorial Cards, 163. 

Mercantile Letters, 114. 

Miscellaneous Letters, 119; Notes, 155. 

Models: of Heading, 23; of Introduc- 
tion. 35; of Conclusion, 51 : of Super- 
scription, 64; Completed Models, 68, 
69; of Notes, 139-157; of Cards. 162- 

NoTxs: of Ceremony and Compliment: 
Invitation^: to Weddings, 138; Din- 
ners, 145 ; Balls, 148 ; College and So- 
ciety Anniversaries, 149 ; Miscella- 
neous, 151. 

Acceptances and Regrets, 152. 
Aliscellaneous, 155. 
Superscription and Delivery of, 157. 

Official Lxttxbs, 13, 3U, 45;— Enve 

lopes, 17 :— Titles, 214. 
Orthography, Remarks on, 73. 

Rules of: for Forming DerivativeM. 

171 ; Special, 174 ; for Capitals, 175. 

Papxk, 15. 

Paragraphing, 40. 

Parties, Invitations to, 147. 

Penmanship, 41. 

Postal Cards, 13. 

Postal Information : Domestic Postage, 
253; Foreign Postage, 253; Sending 
Money, 256. 

Postacripts, 86. 

Plagiarism, 84. 

Presentation Cards, 163. 

Public Letters, 14. 

Punctuation, Remarks on, 81, 177. 
Rules of: Period, 180; Interrogation, 
181; Exclamation, 182; Quotation 
Marks, 183; Colon, 185; Semicolon, 
188; Comma, 190; Dash, 198; Curves, 
200 ; Bracketo, 202. 

Rkcommkvdation, Letters of, 112. 
Redundancy, 84. 
Regrets, 152. 
Rhetoric of Letters, 70. 

Salutatiok, 28 : Forms of, 223, 238. 

Scholastic Titles, 211. 

Signature : of Letters, 47 ; of Notes, 157. 

Simple Words, 77. 

Slang, 77. 

Social Letters, 12 ; Style and Specimens 

of, 91. 
Social Titles, 208. 

Special Applications of Rhetoric, 91. 
Spelling, 73 ; Rules of, 171. 
Stamp, 65. 

Structure of Letters, 15. 
Style : Adaptation of,83 : Cultiviitiou of, 

84 : of Notes. 137 : of Cards, 166. 
Superscription: of Letters, 57 ; of Notes, 

157 ; Pun'*tuation of, 63 ; Models of, 64. 
TiTLRS, 26, 166, 207 ; List of, 216. 
Type- Writer Correspondence, 66. 

Valuk of Epistolabt Litebaturk, 122 

Wax. 19. 

Wedding luvitHtious, 138, 162. 




To avoid fine, this book should be returned on 
or before thie date last stamped below 

1 1 A. 

1 • •' IP* 

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by the youngest pupil, and the lessons before dreaded become a delight to teacher sad 

p^h, Sstnontiiury ca«e has been taken in pading every lesson, modeling rules and 

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